Mobile cloud computing & applition cloud computing challenge and solution

Mobile Cloud Computing:

Mobile cloud computing is a technology that is a combination of cloud computing & mobile computing. Mobile cloud computing has many advantages such as, it provides flexibility, low cost option, unlimited storage and applications etc.The application in mobile cloud needs computation, multi-media processing and data mining and cloud computing helps in mobile computing by increasing the computing capability.

 

 MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNIQUES

1- Cloud Computing

Cloud computing delivers computing services over the internet on demand and these services are on pay as you go basis. This technology provides access to the data at any time and from anywhere. Cloud services comprised social networking, such as YouTube, Facebook etc., web mail, such as Gmail, yahoo etc., online file storage, such as i Cloud etc. Cloud services can be rented from the third-party vendor .There are many advantages of cloud computing, such as cost efficient, reliability etc., and disadvantages, such as security concern etc.

2- Mobile Computing

Mobile computing is a technology that allows transmission of data over the internet without needing to be connected to a fixed physical link. The mobile communication offers the reliable communication. This include devices, such as protocols, bandwidth etc This concept is reliant on mobile devices that receive or access the mobility services, such as laptop and smartphone or mobile devices etc. Mobile computing offers various in-built mobile applications in a single device, such as mobile browser, games etc.

APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING

1- MOBILE COMMERCE

Mobile commerce applications do many tasks which involve mobility tasks, such as transactions, messaging and payments through mobile devices. Mobile commerce has many advantages and there are some challenges too, such as security issue, low network bandwidth issue etc.

2- Mobile Healthcare:

Mobile healthcare applications are used for medical treatments etc. Mobile cloud computing applied in medical applications to minimize the drawbacks of traditional medical applications, such as limited storage space, privacy and security etc.

3-  Mobile Gaming: 

Mobile gaming has several benefits such as, energy saving, increase in gaming speed because of cloud’s processing power. The advantage of mobile cloud gaming is that gamer can play the games without the need of installing the game. It saves the mobile storage space as well as increase processing power.

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING:

1- Physical Threat

Challenges: SIM card can be removed from the mobile without the permission of the mobile owner and thus can be used by any person.

Possible solutions: Developers can upgrade the security level at the application level. Developer should add security to sim cards and the personal data should not be store on the cards. On using cloud services, when a mobile device is lost backup service is needed, to facilitate the user to recover their personal information from the cloud. Also, advanced security methods can be used like, voice recognition and fingerprints to protect mobile devices.

2 –  Mobile network security threat

Challenges: Dealing with mobile network security threat is a major challenge. The threat could be from the user-side, could be in the mobile network or from the cloud.

Possible solutions: Every mobile user should have their own personalized security configuration so that, only genuine users who can fulfil all the security measures can access data and applications in the cloud. Mobile and cloud services require up-to-date security configuration where cloud providers hold more security levels than mobile network. Finally, there is need to protect the transmission of data between mobile devices and cloud storage.

3- Data Access:

Challenges: The number of data are increasing on the cloud fast. So, dealing with the large no. of data i.e. storing, managing and accessing has become very challenging. This may lead to increase the cost of data communication and processing for users.

Possible solution: Mobile devices users can use local storage as cache to improve the speed and reduce network necessity. As now, user cannot store large data on mobile device, so some data storage management need to apply to determine which data can be cached or used from cloud.

4- Mobile Gaming and Scalability

Challenges: The main challenge is the scalability that can change timely like mobile application stores.

Possible solution: Developers can allow unlimited space through cloud computing and the developers would be free to create any application or game without worrying about scalability of storage space. This will lead to a better experience for users. In the case of a game which is played by millions of users, developer cannot take risk of server crashing or any other issue. The flexibility and scalability is needed on demand so that developer can focus on building the games or applications.

Description Of Green Communication Network &Various Application

Green Communication Network:

The communication networking which are energy productive with respect to environmental issues are generally termed as green networking. Research field focus at maximizing performance of communication systems. Pattern is now rapidly shifting towards how to produce sufficient performance with low energy expense.

 

 

APPLICATION AND USES OF GREEN COMMUNICATION

Because of the rapid growth of the Internet and lower price of computer hardware leads to requirement in development of different types of applications from different field.

GREEN COMPUTING IN INFRASTRUCTURAL NETWORK

we know that data centers are becoming one of the major consumer of electricity in the industrialized world and it will rise even higher. like cooling and power conversion.

 1-Bandwidth shared among data centers

Data centers mainly provision higher workload, and often run properly below capacity. Congestion in network changes daily which is basically based on the application used but most of the time congestion are fulfilled by a subset of the network links and switches.

The different bandwidth mechanisms and their uses are:

  1. Fair-Share Bandwidth allocation

  2. TCP
  3. Bandwidth Capping
  4. Second Net
  5. NetShare

2-  Memory storage in cloud

Cloud computing is expanding technologies in the computing industry.In cloud computing, End-user generates a service request for choosing memory of service based resources that are needed.  A transparency mechanism is given in which it let the users to access memories where multiple memories of several resources appear to the user as a single unit.

 

 

GREEN COMPUTING IN WIRELESS NETWORK

Wireless systems, which include the development of cellular networks and cellular 4G phone have been executed. Green communication is becoming more focused, for lower radiation and low communication expense.

Green antennas for low radiation in Cellular Network

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) wireless network like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)&Ad Hoc developing rapidly. Techniques that depend on P2P networks lacks energy. So, the problem of minimum energy tops the list.  The Green Cellular Green Antennas are established to reduce the transmission power of Mobile stations.

 

LATEST TREND IN GREEN COMMUNICATION

 FIBER EVERYWHERE

“Fiber everywhere” are endeavor to improve connectivity and address demand increases from the use of high quality video, 3 G/4 G and other broadband service sand the solution was investments and activity.

GREEN COMMUNICATION

Green communications technologies are accountable for carbon footprint generated by human activity. This increases the need to focus on these. Green communication is doing just that. .Environmental friendly batteries, renewable energy resources are the proposed solutions.

 ENERGY EFFICIENT DEPLOYMENT ARCHITECTURE

In the next generation of mobile communication systems, the net transmit power needed per transmitted bit is anticipated to be lowering fair amount.Both the 3G  LTE and IEEE 802.16 m standards consolidate a different property and techniques that increases spectral productivity and energy efficiency and extend the communication range.

 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

Renewable energy resources play an important role in reducing CO2 gas emissions. Solar power & wind energy can usefully accompany and reduce the net electrical power consumption from the grid. Also, these resources can help power remote The BS sites are the area where the electricity grid is mostly notavailable. This will help in reducing CO2 emissions.

MOLECULAR COMMUNICATION

Molecular communication is an emerging pattern where bio-nano machines.(for example: artificial cells, genetically engineered cells) communicate to perform function. The benefits of this “molecular” approach to communications are size,bio compatibility, and bio-stability. Examples of applications are DDS(drug delivery system), bio-hybrid plants, and LoC(lab-on-a-chip)systems.

ADVANTAGES OF GREEN COMMUNICATION

    1. No harmful emissions emitted in air.
    2. Certain areas can be benefited economically.
    3. Less amount of money is spent because of less maintenance.
    4. It is renewable as it never runs out.
    5. Reduces global warming as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions.

     

     

    DISADVANTAGES TO ADOPTING GREEN COMMUNICATION

  • Implementation costs are high.
  • Lack of information.
  • No known alternative chemical or raw material inputs.
  • No known alternative process technology
  • Uncertainty about performance impacts
  • Lack of human resources and skills.

 

Description of Parliamentary form of Government (United kingdom, sri Lanka,Bangladesh,canada)

What is the meaning of Parliamentary form of Government?

Parliamentary form of Government is the system of government in which there exists an intimate  harmonious relationship between the executive and the legislative departments.In a Parliamentary form of government,  the head of the state is usually a different person than the head of the government. A Monarch or a President is usually the head of the state.  In many countries, the Prime Minister is the head of the council of ministers.

The Parliamentary or the Cabinet system originated in England. This form of government exists in countries like Britain, India and Canada. Parliamentary form of government is also called Responsible government.

 

Features

  1. Existence of a Titular or Constitutional Ruler:
  2. Absence of Separation of Powers
  3. Main Role of the Lower House in Ministry-formation:
  4. Responsibility to the Legislature:
  5. Collective Responsibility:
  6. Intimate relationship between the Legislature and the Executive:
  7. Leadership of the Prime Minister:
  8. Existence of a Strong Opposition:
  9. Cabinet Dictatorship:

Parliamentary system of uk

The two-House system

The business of Parliament takes place in two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Their work is similar: making laws (legislation), checking the work of the government (scrutiny), and debating current issues.

The House of Commons is also responsible for granting money to the government through approving Bills that raise taxes. Generally, the decisions made in one House have to be approved by the other.

In this way the two-chamber system acts as a check and balance for both Houses.

The Commons

The Commons is publicly elected. The party with the largest number of members in the Commons forms the government.

Members of the Commons (MP) debate the big political issues of the day and proposals for new laws. It is one of the key places where government ministers, like the Prime Minister and the Chancellor, and the principal figures of the main political parties, work.

The Lords

The House of Lords is the second chamber of the UK Parliament. It is independent from, and complements the work of, the elected House of Commons. The Lords shares the task of making and shaping laws and checking and challenging the work of the government.

The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, as well as head of government, and is popularly elected for a six-year term. In the exercise of duties, the President is responsible to the Parliament of Sri Lanka, which is a unicameral 225-member legislature.

The President may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve Parliament any time after it has served for one year. A parliamentary no-confidence vote requires dissolution of the cabinet and the appointment of a new one by the President.
Meanwhile, the parliament reserves the power to make all laws.

The people of Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) had the first opportunity of enjoying universal franchise in 1931 to elect their Members to the State Council. The first Parliamentary General Election was conducted in 1947, a year before independence from the British colonial rule of 130 years. The First Parliament was elected in 1947 under Ceylon (Constitution) Order in Council of 1946. The election was held on multiparty system.

After 25 years, the first Republican Constitution was introduced in 1972 with the President as the Head of the State who was to be nominated by the Prime Minister. Later in 1978 the Second Republican Constitution was introduced, which promulgated the establishment of an Executive Presidency and a Parliamentary legislative.

After independence Bangladesh began its journey as a parliamentary democracy. The Provisional Constitutional Order which was promulgated  Bangabandhu6 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a day after his return from Pakistani prison to independent Bangladesh on 11 January 1972 noted the “manifest aspiration of the people of Bangladesh that a parliamentary democracy shall function in Bangladesh.”

The constitution provided for a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model.

The cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister, was vested with the executive power and was made collectively responsible to the parliament, Jatiya Sangsad which was invested with all legislative power. The JS would be a single chamber with 300 general seats to be directly elected from single territorial constituencies through the ‘first past the post’ system. Provisions were also made for 15 reserved seats for women for 10 years to be indirectly elected by the 300 general members.

The constitution provided for a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model.

 

Brief description of soil & use of soil in daily life

WHAT IS SOIL ?

The word soil is derived from Latin word ‘solium’ which means upper layer of earth’s surface. This word ‘soil’ has different meaning for different professions. For an agriculturist, it is the loose surface material of the earth is which plants grow.

For a geologist, it is the material which is produced as a result of disintegration of rocks and which has not been transported from its original position. For an engineer, soils are an incremented accumulation of minerals or organic particles occurring in the zone overlying the rock crust.

Basic Characteristics of Soil

Soil consists of different phases of solid, liquid, and gas and its characteristics depend on the interacting behavior of these phases, and on the stress applied. The solid phase includes clay, non-clay minerals, and organic matter. These elements are categorized by their size as clay, sand, and gravel. The liquid phase is composed of water that contains organic compounds available from chemical spills, wastes, and ground water, while the gas phase is normally air. The size, form, chemical properties, compressibility, .

HOW IS SOIL FORMED?

In the Earth’s surface, rocks extend upto as much as 20 km depth. The major rock types are categorized as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

Igneous rocks: formed from crystalline bodies of cooled magma.

Sedimentary rocks: formed from layers of cemented sediments.

Metamorphic rocks: formed by the alteration of existing rocks due to heat from igneous intrusions or pressure due to crustal movement.

Soils are formed from materials that have resulted from the disintegration of rocks by various processes of physical and chemical weathering. The nature and structure of a given soil depends on the processes and conditions that formed it:

Breakdown of parent rock: weathering, decomposition, erosion.

Transportation to site of final deposition: gravity, flowing water, ice, wind.

Environment of final deposition: flood plain, river terrace, glacial moraine, lacustrine or marine.

Subsequent conditions of loading and drainage: little or no surcharge, heavy surcharge due to ice or overlying deposits, change from saline to freshwater, leaching, contamination.

TYPES OF SOIL

Soils as they are found in different regions can be classified into two broad categories:

(1) Residual soils 

(2) Transported soils

Residual Soils
Residual soils are found at the same location where they have been formed. Generally, the depth of residual soils varies from 5 to 20 m.

Chemical weathering rate is greater in warm, humid regions than in cold, dry regions causing a faster breakdown of rocks. Accumulation of residual soils take place as the rate of rock decomposition exceeds the rate of erosion or transportation of the weathered material. In humid regions, the presence of surface vegetation reduces the possibility of soil transportation particle sizes, shapes and composition.

Transported Soils
Weathered rock materials can be moved from their original site to new locations by one or more of the transportation agencies to form transported soils. Transported soils are classified based on the mode of transportation and the final deposition environment.

(a) Soils that are carried and deposited by rivers are called alluvial deposits.

(b) Soils that are deposited by flowing water or surface runoff while entering a lake are called lacustrine deposits. Alternate layers are formed in different seasons depending on flow rate.

(c) If the deposits are made by rivers in sea water, they are called marine deposits. Marine deposits contain both particulate material brought from the shore as well as organic remnants of marine life forms.

(d) Melting of a glacier causes the deposition of all the materials scoured by it leading to formation of glacial deposits.

(e) Soil particles carried by wind and subsequently deposited are known as aeoliar deposits.

Methods of determining bearing capacity

Methods of computing the bearing capacity can be listed as follows:

  • Presumptive Analysis
  • Analytical Methods
  • Plate Bearing Test
  • Penetration Test
  • Modern Testing Methods
  • Centrifuge Test

           

  1. Increasing depth of foundation.
  2. Draining the soil.
  3. Compacting the soil.
  4. Confining the soil.
  5. Replacing the poor soil.
  6. Using grouting material.
  7. Stabilizing the soil with chemicals

USES OF SOIL IN CONSTRUCTION

Estimates of soil properties generally apply to a depth of about 5 to 6 feet. Interpretations therefore normally do not apply to depths greater than 5 to 6 feet.

  1. Select potential residential, industrial, commercial, and recreational areas.
  2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways, pipelines, and underground cables.
  3. Plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and other structures for controlling water and conserving soil.
  4. Correlate performance of structures already built with properties of the kinds of soil on which they are built, for the purpose of predicting performance of structures on the same or similar kinds of soil in other locations.
  5. Predict the traffic ability of soils for cross-country movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
  6. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a particular area.

Human rights & Value and Ethics

What are human rights?

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Some list of Human Rights:

  1. Right to speech
  2. Right to live
  3. Right to freedom
  4. Right to Life
  5. Right to liberty
  6. Right to thought
  7. Right to expression
  8. Right to education
  9. Right to work
  10. Right to equality before the law, social, cultural and economic right.

Our Constitution lays down that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals, the national flag and the national anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas, which inspired the national struggle for independence.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national services when called upon to do so.
  • To promote the harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve national environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

Fundamental duties have put the fundamental rights in the right perspective. They have balanced one thing with the other. Fundamental duties have been added to make the citizens patriotic and make them realize the importance of protecting the sovereignty and integrity of their country.

Fundamental duties have been incorporated in the Constitution of India to promote the ideas of harmony in the land of diversities and to strengthen the nation.

 

VALUES AND ETHICS

Values  the moral principles and beliefs of a person or group Milton Rokeach (1973; 1979) “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence”.

  • Values are beliefs. But they are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold ideas.
  • Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain.
  • Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations.
  • Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. That is, values serve as standards or criteria.
  • Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.
THE IMPORTANCE OF VALUES AND MORALS 

According to Father of Indian Nation M.K.Gandhi
“If wealth is lost nothing is lost”
“If health is lost something is lost”
“If character is lost everything is lost”
Best of all things is character.

 

 

“The Importance of Values and Morals are the code we live by in a civil and just society. They are what we use to guide our interactions with others, with our friends and family, in our businesses and professional behaviour. Our values and morals are a reflection of our spirituality; our character. They are what we hope to model for our children and the children around us, because children do watch us as they develop their own sense of right and wrong.

Value education means inculcating in the children sense humanism, a deep concern for the well being of others and the nation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment to values that would build this country and bring back to the people pride in work that brings order, security and assured progress.

Ethics is Investigation into the basic concepts and fundamental principles of human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.

 

Socialization

What Is Socialization ?

Human infants are born without any culture.  They must be transformed by their parents, teachers, and others into cultural and socially adept animals.  The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within a society.

Socialization is important in the process of personality formation.  While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences.  This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another.  For instance, the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals.  In fact, they avoid them whenever possible.  In contrast, the Yanomamö Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive.

How are People Socialized?

Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. We begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process). Sometimes the learning is fun, as when we learn a new sport, art or musical technique from a friend we like. At other times, social learning is painful, as when we learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine for speeding.

Agents of Socialization

The individual responds differently to different socialization patterns. The following paragraphs will help to explain the influences of socialization on an individual.

Family
The most important agent of socialization, family helps mold an individual. The family values, beliefs, religious inclinations and political views shape an individual’s outlook towards society. Parents are the biggest influence for the social development in children.

Schools
After family, schools are probably the most important influence on an individual. Schools help pass on knowledge, create awareness and inculcate the feelings of tolerance in individuals. The second step to socialization is schools where a child meets different children and learns to make out the right and wrong in society.

Community and Culture
Community and culture help pass on the religious views and cultural traditions in an individual. A community is the group where an individual meets people with similar ideologies and interact for personal and community growth.

Peers
Meeting like-minded people, making friends and hanging out together may seem like a teenagers life. But in fact, each and every individual in society loves to have social contact. Peers have great impact on an individual’s thoughts and line of thinking. An individual learns to behave in a manner that they think will be acceptable to their peers. Peer acceptance is an important part of socialization.

Mass Media
In today’s world, mass media is one of important ways of socialization. People are influenced by the social norms portrayed by the mass media. Political, religious and social views are enforced in a hard way through the repeated exposure and arguments put forth by the agents of mass media.
Through the above explanation, you will understand, that agents of socialization play an important role in an individual’s life. The different positive attributes fed by these agents create harmony in an individual that makes him feel confident and respect social etiquette.

TYPES OF SOCIALIZATION

Primary socialization for a child is very important because it sets the ground work for all future socialization. Primary Socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. It is mainly influenced by the immediate family and friends. For example if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group, then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups.

Secondary socialization Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Basically, it is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society. Secondary socialization takes place outside the home. Secondary Socialization is usually associated with teenagers and adults, and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization. Such examples of Secondary Socialization are entering a new profession or relocating to a new environment or society.

Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future positions, occupations, and social relationships. For example, a couple might move in together before getting married in order to try out, or anticipate, what living together will be like] Research by Kenneth J. Levine and Cynthia A. Hoffner suggests that parents are the main source of anticipatory socialization in regards to jobs and careers.

Re-socialization Re-socialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes, accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. This occurs throughout the human life cycle. Re-socialization can be an intense experience, with the individual experiencing a sharp break with his or her past, as well as a need to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values

 

 

 

Organizational socialization

Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learns the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role. As newcomers become socialized, they learn about the organization and its history, values, jargon, culture, and procedures. This acquired knowledge about new employees’ future work environment affects the way they are able to apply their skills and abilities to their jobs. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.

 

 

Patriotism and National pride In India

Patriotism and National Pride

Every social group has its own notions of loyalty. The institution of family embeds loyalty to the family as a social group. When a son and his wife and children separate from the rest of the family or when brothers divide their property, the neighborhood reacts with sorrow and not glee. Caste associations emphasize the benefits which come from an active participation and cooperation between different members of the same caste. Tribal groups, too, emphasize similar benefits from collaboration.
The notion of patriotism is different from such forms of group loyalty. The difference lies in its close affinity with the state. Patriotism is not based upon kinship or of shared descent like in families, castes and tribes. Patriotism is based upon the idea of a nation and its central institution, the state.

What is Patriotism?

The standard dictionary definition reads “love of one’s country.” This captures the core meaning of the term in ordinary use; but it might well be thought too thin. Stephen Nathanson (1993, 34–35) defines patriotism as involving:

  1. Special affection for one’s own country
  2. A sense of personal identification with the country
  3. Special concern for the well-being of the country
  4. Willingness to sacrifice to promote the country’s good

Accordingly, patriotism can be defined as love of one’s country, identification with it, and special concern for its well-being and that of compatriots.

Patriotism and nationalism

In the 19th century, Lord Acton contrasted “nationality” and patriotism as affection and instinct vs. a moral relation. Nationality is “our connection with the race” that is “merely natural or physical,” while patriotism is the awareness of our moral duties to the political community (Acton 1972, 163). Patriotism involves pride in, or endorsement of, one’s country.

National Pride

(a) National Flag  :    The National Flag of India was designed by Pingali Venkay yaand and adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before India’s independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. It served as the national flag of the Dominion of India between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950 and that of the Republic of India thereafter. In India, the term “tri colour” refers to the Indian national flag.  In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. This Dharma Chakra depicted the “wheel of the law” in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.

 

National Emblem : The National Emblem features Four lions standing back to back on a platform. There is a wheel in the centre of the platform. A bull stands on the right of the wheel and a horse on its left. If you see the corners of the base you’ll spot the outlines of other wheels. The words Satyameva Jayate (‘Truth Alone Triumphs’) from an ancient book the Mundaka Upanishad are written below the picture in Hindi.

National Anthem:  The National Anthem is the song Jana-gana-mana.  It was written by the Nobel Prize winning poet, Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali, but it is the Hindi translation which is used officially. Tagore’s poem Bharat Bhagya Vidhata has five stanzas but only the first stanza is the National Anthem. The National Anthem was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950.

The playing time of the National Anthem is 52 seconds.

 

National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by  Chatterji is India’s National Song.

The song was chosen because it had inspired many people during India’s struggle freedom

 

National Bird:   The Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the National Bird of India.
The peacock is a swan-sized bird with a tail of colourful feathers.

National Animal:    The National animal is the majestic tiger (Panthera tigris).
The tiger is a big ‘wild’ cat with a thick yellow coat of fur, marked with dark stripes.

It’s strength and speed make it one of the most feared animals in the jungle.

 

National Flower: The National Flower of India is the lotus. This beautiful flower is found on the surface of lakes and even dirty ponds especially during the rainy season. Its stem and roots are not visible as they stay under the water. The lotus is a popular symbol. Sometimes it is used to show how a good thing can grow out of a bad place.

Activity:  Ask students what are some things about India they would remember and would feel proud about if they migrate to another county.

e.g. Indian food, festivals, culture

 

 

 

 

Nanotechnology& Nano particles

What is nanotechnology?

A generally accepted definition is: The application of science that deals with elements in the range of 100 nano-metres to one tenth of a nano-metre in size’

Nanotechnology can be generally defined as fabrication and manipulation of structures that have at least one dimension or contain components with at least one dimension that is approximately 1-100 nm.

Various types nanomaterials  used in nanotechnolog

Liposomes

 

Liposomes are vesicular structures with an aqueous core surrounded by a hydrophobic lipid bilayer, created by the extrusion of phospholipids. They are most widely known cosmetic delivery systems. Liposomes can vary in size, from 15 nm up to several μm and can have either a single layer  or multi layer structure.

Liposomes have been formed that facilitate the continuous supply of agents into the cells over a sustained period of time, making them an ideal candidate for the delivery of vitamins and other molecules to regenerate the epidermis. They have also been used in the treatment of hair loss. Minoxidil, a vasodilator, is in the active ingredient in products like Reginae that claim to prevent or slow hair loss.

Cubosomes:

Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nano structured particles of bi-continuous cubic liquid crystalline phase. It is formed by the self assembly of liquid crystalline particles of certain surface when mixed with water and a micro structure at a certain ratio. Cubosomes offer a large surface area, low viscosity and can exist at almost any dilution level. They have high heat stability and are capable of carrying hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. Combined with the low cost of the raw materials and the potential for controlled release through function, they are an attractive choice for cosmetic applications as well as for drug delivery.

Hydro gels:

They are 3D hydrophilic polymer networks that swell in water or biological fluids without dissolving as a result of chemical or physical cross-links. They can predict future changes and change their property accordingly to prevent the damage

Nano crystals:

Nano crystals are crystals having size less than 1μm. Typical sizes of these aggregates are between 10-400 nm . Nano crystals of poorly soluble drugs can also be incorporated in cosmetic products where they provide high penetration power through dermal application.

Dendrimers:

Dendrimers are uni molecular, mono disperse, mini nano structures, around 20 nm in size, with a well-defined, regularly branched symmetrical structure and a high density of functional end groups at their periphery. A dendrimer is typically symmetric around the core, and often adopts a spherical three-dimensional morphology

Niosomes:

Niosomes are vesicles composed of non ionic surface, such as poly oxyethylene alkyl ethers or esters. The ultra structure of these vesicles is quite similar to that of mammalian milk, which contains nano-sized fat droplets surrounded by the milk fat globular membrane.The advantages of using niosomes in cosmetic and skin care applications include their ability to increase the stability of entrapped drugs, improved bio  availability of poorly absorbed ingredients .

 

Methods for the preparation of nano particles:-

  1. The sol–gel method
  2. Vacuum deposition method
  3. Ball milling method
  4. Pyrolysis
  5. Other methods like Arc (DC) plasma, Laser Processes, Wire electrical explosion, Sputtering, Droplet-to-Particle Conversion, Flame synthesis.
  6. The sol–gel method:

Silver nano particles; for example, is prepared by mixing the AgNO3 solution with tetraethylorthosilicate, ethanol and water then with a few drops of HNO3 as a catalyst.

The mixed solution was dispersed and dried. The dried gels were reduced at a temperature of 400 0 C  for 30 min in hydrogen gas. The Ag particles have a size of about 5-10 nm with a profile distribution in the form of log normal distribution. The nano particles are embedded in silica glass in well separated and protected matrix. The preparation of iron nano  particles embedded in glass can be prepared with the same method by substituting FeCl3 for the silver salt.

 

 

Vacuum deposition method:-

The presence of inert gas in vacuum chamber and lowering down the substrate temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature during thermal evaporation can reduce the momentum of the evaporated metallic atoms or clusters by collision with gas to obviate their further aggregation on the substrate. The evaporated metal atoms condensed just at where they reached without migration to the potential minimum thereby lose Vander wall attraction between particles. The resulting smokes can be collected from the substrate or walls of the evaporation chamber with the particle sizes can be easily controlled between 30-1000 Å depending on the gas pressure, the evaporation speed, the type of gas used, and the substrate temperature. Direct (DC) or radio frequency (RF) sputtering with the structure of deposited films mostly to be amorphous without substrate heating can successfully deposit refractory metals and alloys.

 

 

  1. Ball milling method:-

Hard and brittle ceramic materials can be ball-milled into nano particles to produce nano crystals, non crystals, and pseudo crystals. Powders of 500 nm sizes can be milled into several NM by strong vibrations when mixed with tungsten-carbide spheres.

Pyrolysis:-

In pyrolysis, a vaporous precursor (liquid or gas) is forced through an orifice at high pressure and burned. The resulting solid (a version of soot) is air classified to recover oxide particles from by-product gases. Pyrolysis often results in aggregates and agglomerates rather than single primary particles. The thermal plasma temperatures are in the order of 10,000 K, so that solid powder easily evaporates. Nano particles are formed upon cooling while exiting the plasma region. The main types of the thermal plasma torches used to produce nano particles are dc plasma jet, dc arc plasma and radio frequency (RF) induction plasmas.

 

 

Methods for preparation of Solid Lipid Nano particles 

High shear homogenization and ultrasound

  1. High pressure homogenization
  2. Solvent emulsification /evaporation
  3. Micro emulsion based SLN preparations
  4. a) High shear homogenization and ultrasound

PROPERTIES OF NANO PARTICLES:-

  • They are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures.
  • A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are often observed.
  • For bulk materials larger than one micrometer (or micron), the percentage of atoms at the surface is insignificant in relation to the number of atoms in the bulk of the material.
  • The high surface area to volume ratio of nano particles provides a tremendous driving force for diffusion, especially at elevated temperatures. Sintering can take place at lower temperatures, over shorter time scales than for larger particles.
  • Suspensions of nano particles are possible since the interaction of the particle surface with the solvent is strong enough to overcome density differences, which otherwise usually result in a material either sinking or floating in a liquid.

 

 

Introduction To Skin

Introduction to skin

  • The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
  • The system comprises the skin and its appendages(including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails)
  • The skin has up to seven layers of Ectoderm tissue and guards the underlying    muscles, bones, ligaments and  internal organs.
  • Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
  • There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin
  • As the skin interfaces with the environment, it plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss.
  • Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and pigmented.

 

Skin performs the following functions

  • Protection: An anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.
  • Sensation: Contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury.
  • Heat regulation: Contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heat loss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.

Function

  • Control of evaporation: The skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.

Aesthetics and communication: Others see our skin and can access our mood, physical state and attractiveness.

  • Storage and synthesis: Acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.
  • Excretion: Sweat contains urea, however its concentration is 1/130  that of urine , hence excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation.
  • Absorption: The cells comprising the outermost 0.25–0.40 mm of the skin are “almost exclusively supplied by external oxygen”, although the “contribution to total respiration is negligible. In addition, medicine can be administered through the skin, by ointments or by means of adhesive patch, such as the nicotine patch or . The skin is an important site of transport in many other organisms.

Water resistance: The skin acts as a water-resistant barrier so essential nutrients are not washed out of the body.

Hygiene and skin care

The skin supports its own ecosystems of microorganisms, including yeasts and bacteria, which cannot be removed by any amount of cleaning. Estimates place the number of individual bacteria on the surface of one square inch (6.5 square cm) of human skin at 50 million, though this figure varies greatly over the average 20 square feet (1.9 m) of human skin. Oily surfaces, such as the face, may contain over 500 million bacteria per square inch (6.5 cm²). Despite these vast quantities, all of the bacteria found on the skin’s surface would fit into a volume the size of a pea. In general, the microorganisms keep one another in check and are part of a healthy skin. When the balance is disturbed, there may be an overgrowth and infection, such as when antibiotics kill microbes, resulting in an overgrowth of yeast. The skin is continuous with the inner epithelial lining of the body at the orifices, each of which supports its own complement of microbes.

Cosmetics should be used carefully on the skin because these may cause allergic reactions. Each season quires suitable clothing in order to facilitate the evaporation of the sweat. Sunlight, water and air play an important role in keeping the skin healthy.

Oily skin

  • Oily skin is caused by over-active sebaceous glands, that produce a substance called serum, a naturally healthy skin lubricant. When the skin produces excessive serum, it becomes heavy and thick in texture.. The oily skin type is less prone to wrinkling, or other signs of aging, because the oil helps to keep needed moisture locked into the epidermis
  • The negative aspect of the oily skin type is that oily complexions are especially susceptible to clogged pores, blackheads, and buildup of dead skin cells on the surface of the skin. Oily skin can be sallow and rough in texture and tends to have large, clearly visible pores everywhere, except around the eyes and neck.

Permeability

Human skin has a low permeability ; that is, most foreign substances are unable to penetrate and diffuse through the skin. Skin’s outermost layer, the stratum corner, is an effective barrier to most inorganic anodized particles. This protects the body from external particles such as toxins by not allowing them to come into contact with iternal tissues. However, in some cases it is desirable to allow particles entry to the body through the skin.

solid lipid nano particles 

Solid lipid nano particles  are aqueous colloidal dispersion, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids.

It combine the advantages and avoid the drawbacks of several colloidal carriers of its class such as physical stability, protection of incorporated labile drugs from degradation and controlled release.

SLN formulations for various application routes (parental, oral, dermal, ocular, pulmonary, rectal) have been developed and thoroughly characterized in vitro.

Advantage of solid lipid nano particles

  • Use of biodegradable physiological lipids which decreases the danger of acute and chronic toxicity and avoidance of organic solvents in production methods.

Site specific delivery of drugs, enhanced drug.

penetration into the skin via dermal application

  • Possibility of scaling up.
  • Protection of chemically labile agents from degradation
  • In the gut and sensitive molecules from outer environment
  • SLNs have better stability compared to liposomes
  • Enhance the bio-availability of entrapped bio-active and chemical production of labile incorporated compound.
  • High concentration of functional compound achieved.

 

  • Disadvantages of SLN

  • Poor drug loading capacity,
  • Drug expulsion after polymeric transition during storage
  • Relatively high water content of the dispersions (70-99.9%)

The Use of Nanotechnology in Cosmetics

Nanotechnology is frequently used in many cosmetic product hair care products, make up and sunscreen.

There are two primary uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics.

First, nano-particles are used as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main ingredients as organic alternatives have not been developed yes.

Secondly, nanotechnology is used for delivery particular components. Solid lipid nano-particles and nano-structured lipid carriers, which are used in cosmetic industry for delivery, can replace liposomes and niosomes.

With the help of encapsulation techniques, newer structures can provide better hydration of skin, stability of the agent, bio-availability and controlled occlusion.

Personal care products, which apply nanotechnology

Penetration enhancer Increases penetration of key ingredients into the skin, using so-called nano-emulsions or nano-spheres: anti-wrinkle cream , to avoid uneven skin pigmentation, wrinkles and lines in six weeks using nanotechnology.

Hair products –Carry active ingredients deeper into hair shafts with the help of nano-emulsions.

Sunscreens – “micronizing” of zinc and titanium in sunscreens made them transparent, less smelly, less greasy and boosted their ability to be absorbed into the skin.


 

 

 

BIOMOLECULES

WHAT IS BIOMOLECULES? 

Biomolecules are also called the “chemicals of life”. These chemicals form a system which makes up the living things more complex.the are several huge molecules called macro-molecules made up of many simple molecules .these chemicals perform the metabolic activities of the living beings. They can act as catalyst in these processes as enzymes. They form the structure of the organisms.

Lipids:

The term lipid was coined by BLOOR

Lipids include a variety of molecular types, such as neutral fats, oils, steroids, and waxes. Unlike other classes of biomolecule, lipids do not form large polymers. Two or three fatty acids are usually polymerized with glycerol, but other lipids, such as steroids, do not form polymers.

Characteristics of Lipid:

General characters of lipids are:

Lipids are relatively insoluble in water.

They are soluble in non-polar solvents, like ether, chloroform, methanol.

Lipids have high energy content and are metabolized to release calories.

Lipids also act as electrical insulators, they insulate nerve axons.

Fats contain saturated fatty acids, they are solid at room temperatures. Example, animal fats.

Plant fats are unsaturated and are liquid at room temperatures.

Pure fats are colorless, they have extremely bland taste.

The fats are sparingly soluble in water and hence are described are hydrophobic substances.

They are freely soluble in organic solvents like ether, acetone and benzene.

Properties of lipids:

Hydrolysis: Lipids act as efficient catalyst in alimentary canal of animal for hydrolysis ester bonds releasing 3 molecules of fatty acids and 1 molecule of glycerol.

Saponification: When boiled with Na or K hydroxides ,fats are hydrolysed to into Na or K salts of long chain fatty acids which are called long chains of fatty acids called soaps and the hydrolysis is called saponification. The soaps so formed are used for cleaning.

Dehydration :when heated with Sodium hydrogen sulphide OR Potassium hydrogen sulphide the glycerol in it is dehydrated to an unsaturated aldehyde called acrylic .It confirms the presence of glycerol in a fat.

Hydrogenation:on catalytic hydrogenation at low pressure ,hydrogen ads across C=C of the acid components of the tri glycerol.

Proteins:

Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called AMINO ACID, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein. The sequence of aminoacids determines each protein’s unique 3-dimensional structure and its specific function .Mostly proteins are made up of 20 base proteins called MAGIC 20.

Classifications of Amino Acid:

Experts classify amino acids based on a variety of features, including whether people can acquire them through diet.

Accordingly, scientists recognize three amino acid types:

1-Nonessential

2 -Essential

3-Conditionally essential

Histidine is an amino acid that is categorized as semi-essential since the human body doesn’t always need it to properly function; therefore, dietary sources of it are not always essential. Meanwhile, conditionally essential amino acids aren’t usually required in the human diet, but do become essential under certain circumstances. Essential amino acids or from normal protein breakdowns. Nonessential amino Finally, nonessential amino acids are produced by the human body either from acids include:

1-Asparagine

2-Alanine

3-Arginine

4-Aspartic acid

5-Cysteine

6-Glutamic acid

7-Glutamine

8-Proline

9-Glycine

10-Tyrosine

An additional Amino acid classified  as  the side chain structure that divides the list of 20 amino acids into four groups – two of which are the main groups and two that are subgroups. They are:

Non-polar

Polar

acidic and polar

Basic and polar

For example, side chains having pure hydrocarbon alkyl or aromatic groups are considered non-polar, and these amino acids are comprised of Phenylalanine, Glycine, Valine, Leucine, Alanine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, and Tryptophan. Meanwhile, if the side chain contains different polar groups like amides, acids, and alcohols, they are classified as polar. Their list includes Tyrosine, Serine, Asparagine, Threonine, Glutamine, and Cysteine.

Physical properties : protiens show properties like colloidal effect ,tyndall effect, denaturation, renaturation or refolding etc

 

Chemical properties:protiens react with millons reagent,follins reagent, undergo hydrolysis,nin hydrin reaction etc.

 

Carbohydrate:

Carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n).This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, Deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

 

 

PROPERTIES OF CARBOHYDRATES:

 

Oxidation:with mild agents like HOBr,glucose is oxduised to gluconic acid.This reaction is used to distinguish aldoses from ketoses.

They also under go reactions with schiffs reagent ,tollens reagent,molins reagent.

Vitamin

They are organic micronutrient and can not be synthesized by the body and have to be supplemented .their deficiency may cause diseases.they are of two kinds 1)fat soluble- vitamin A,D,E,K 2)water soluble –vitamin B,C

ITS FUNCTION

Maintains the growth of human body .

Regulates Ca and PO4 metabolism.

Functions as anti oxidant

Its soiurces are milk ,butter, tomato, leafy vegetable.

 

Nucleic acids

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of nucleic acids found in the nuclei of living cells. They are the vehicles of genetic inheritance.

Nucleic acids are condensation polymers of nucleotides.The nucleotide consists of a phosohate group,a pentose sugar ,and anitrogen containing base (thymine,cytocyne or uracil,adnine,guanine).

DEOXYRIBOSE NUCLEIC ACID

DNA is the cellular molecule that contains instructions for the performance of all cell functions. When a cell divides, its DNA is copied and passed from one cell generation to the next generation.

DNA is organized into chromosomes and found within the nucleus of our cells. It contains the “programmatic instructions” for cellular activities. When organisms produce offspring, these instructions in are passed down through DNA. DNA commonly exists as a double stranded molecule with a twisted double helix shape.

DNA is composed of a phosphate-deoxyribose sugar backbone and the four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In double stranded DNA, adenine pairs with thymine (A-T) and guanine pairs with cytosine (G-C)

Ribose nucleic acid

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is an important molecule with long chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. Just like DNA, RNA is vital for living beings. RNA is formed from DNA by a process called transcription. This uses enzymes like RNA polymerases. RNA is central to protein synthesis. First a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). These all come together and form a complex that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. This requires the help of transfer RNA or tRNA.