Human rights & Value and Ethics

What are human rights?

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Some list of Human Rights:

  1. Right to speech
  2. Right to live
  3. Right to freedom
  4. Right to Life
  5. Right to liberty
  6. Right to thought
  7. Right to expression
  8. Right to education
  9. Right to work
  10. Right to equality before the law, social, cultural and economic right.

Our Constitution lays down that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals, the national flag and the national anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas, which inspired the national struggle for independence.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national services when called upon to do so.
  • To promote the harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve national environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

Fundamental duties have put the fundamental rights in the right perspective. They have balanced one thing with the other. Fundamental duties have been added to make the citizens patriotic and make them realize the importance of protecting the sovereignty and integrity of their country.

Fundamental duties have been incorporated in the Constitution of India to promote the ideas of harmony in the land of diversities and to strengthen the nation.



Values  the moral principles and beliefs of a person or group Milton Rokeach (1973; 1979) “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence”.

  • Values are beliefs. But they are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold ideas.
  • Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain.
  • Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations.
  • Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. That is, values serve as standards or criteria.
  • Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.

According to Father of Indian Nation M.K.Gandhi
“If wealth is lost nothing is lost”
“If health is lost something is lost”
“If character is lost everything is lost”
Best of all things is character.



“The Importance of Values and Morals are the code we live by in a civil and just society. They are what we use to guide our interactions with others, with our friends and family, in our businesses and professional behaviour. Our values and morals are a reflection of our spirituality; our character. They are what we hope to model for our children and the children around us, because children do watch us as they develop their own sense of right and wrong.

Value education means inculcating in the children sense humanism, a deep concern for the well being of others and the nation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment to values that would build this country and bring back to the people pride in work that brings order, security and assured progress.

Ethics is Investigation into the basic concepts and fundamental principles of human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.


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