Human rights & Value and Ethics

What are human rights?

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Some list of Human Rights:

  1. Right to speech
  2. Right to live
  3. Right to freedom
  4. Right to Life
  5. Right to liberty
  6. Right to thought
  7. Right to expression
  8. Right to education
  9. Right to work
  10. Right to equality before the law, social, cultural and economic right.

Our Constitution lays down that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals, the national flag and the national anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas, which inspired the national struggle for independence.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national services when called upon to do so.
  • To promote the harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve national environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

Fundamental duties have put the fundamental rights in the right perspective. They have balanced one thing with the other. Fundamental duties have been added to make the citizens patriotic and make them realize the importance of protecting the sovereignty and integrity of their country.

Fundamental duties have been incorporated in the Constitution of India to promote the ideas of harmony in the land of diversities and to strengthen the nation.



Values  the moral principles and beliefs of a person or group Milton Rokeach (1973; 1979) “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence”.

  • Values are beliefs. But they are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold ideas.
  • Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain.
  • Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations.
  • Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. That is, values serve as standards or criteria.
  • Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.

According to Father of Indian Nation M.K.Gandhi
“If wealth is lost nothing is lost”
“If health is lost something is lost”
“If character is lost everything is lost”
Best of all things is character.



“The Importance of Values and Morals are the code we live by in a civil and just society. They are what we use to guide our interactions with others, with our friends and family, in our businesses and professional behaviour. Our values and morals are a reflection of our spirituality; our character. They are what we hope to model for our children and the children around us, because children do watch us as they develop their own sense of right and wrong.

Value education means inculcating in the children sense humanism, a deep concern for the well being of others and the nation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment to values that would build this country and bring back to the people pride in work that brings order, security and assured progress.

Ethics is Investigation into the basic concepts and fundamental principles of human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.


Patriotism and National pride In India

Patriotism and National Pride

Every social group has its own notions of loyalty. The institution of family embeds loyalty to the family as a social group. When a son and his wife and children separate from the rest of the family or when brothers divide their property, the neighborhood reacts with sorrow and not glee. Caste associations emphasize the benefits which come from an active participation and cooperation between different members of the same caste. Tribal groups, too, emphasize similar benefits from collaboration.
The notion of patriotism is different from such forms of group loyalty. The difference lies in its close affinity with the state. Patriotism is not based upon kinship or of shared descent like in families, castes and tribes. Patriotism is based upon the idea of a nation and its central institution, the state.

What is Patriotism?

The standard dictionary definition reads “love of one’s country.” This captures the core meaning of the term in ordinary use; but it might well be thought too thin. Stephen Nathanson (1993, 34–35) defines patriotism as involving:

  1. Special affection for one’s own country
  2. A sense of personal identification with the country
  3. Special concern for the well-being of the country
  4. Willingness to sacrifice to promote the country’s good

Accordingly, patriotism can be defined as love of one’s country, identification with it, and special concern for its well-being and that of compatriots.

Patriotism and nationalism

In the 19th century, Lord Acton contrasted “nationality” and patriotism as affection and instinct vs. a moral relation. Nationality is “our connection with the race” that is “merely natural or physical,” while patriotism is the awareness of our moral duties to the political community (Acton 1972, 163). Patriotism involves pride in, or endorsement of, one’s country.

National Pride

(a) National Flag  :    The National Flag of India was designed by Pingali Venkay yaand and adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before India’s independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. It served as the national flag of the Dominion of India between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950 and that of the Republic of India thereafter. In India, the term “tri colour” refers to the Indian national flag.  In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. This Dharma Chakra depicted the “wheel of the law” in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.


National Emblem : The National Emblem features Four lions standing back to back on a platform. There is a wheel in the centre of the platform. A bull stands on the right of the wheel and a horse on its left. If you see the corners of the base you’ll spot the outlines of other wheels. The words Satyameva Jayate (‘Truth Alone Triumphs’) from an ancient book the Mundaka Upanishad are written below the picture in Hindi.

National Anthem:  The National Anthem is the song Jana-gana-mana.  It was written by the Nobel Prize winning poet, Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali, but it is the Hindi translation which is used officially. Tagore’s poem Bharat Bhagya Vidhata has five stanzas but only the first stanza is the National Anthem. The National Anthem was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950.

The playing time of the National Anthem is 52 seconds.


National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by  Chatterji is India’s National Song.

The song was chosen because it had inspired many people during India’s struggle freedom


National Bird:   The Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the National Bird of India.
The peacock is a swan-sized bird with a tail of colourful feathers.

National Animal:    The National animal is the majestic tiger (Panthera tigris).
The tiger is a big ‘wild’ cat with a thick yellow coat of fur, marked with dark stripes.

It’s strength and speed make it one of the most feared animals in the jungle.


National Flower: The National Flower of India is the lotus. This beautiful flower is found on the surface of lakes and even dirty ponds especially during the rainy season. Its stem and roots are not visible as they stay under the water. The lotus is a popular symbol. Sometimes it is used to show how a good thing can grow out of a bad place.

Activity:  Ask students what are some things about India they would remember and would feel proud about if they migrate to another county.

e.g. Indian food, festivals, culture






Culture is a term related to development of human being growth influence by socially ;political;migration ;status difference .

In another  form  culture refers  way of life .how  they dress ;how they speak;how they eat food ; how they worship ; art of interaction with other people . Significance of culture is a scientific process  towards human liberation  and  well being life.


Vast of diversity in culture activity co related to development of unity &peace among the different people lived together in single roof  in different region as belonging to different community present a moral lesson across the world (SABKA SAATH SABKA VIKAS).

On vast canvas of cuture balancing picture of hues and vibrancy .For  a several of centures year india runs on path of unity  supporting and tollerence as the vistors can vist in india found a perfect balanced between unqiueness in culutre and diversity in every platform released value of dediaction in every citizens in this country.

ATITHI DEVO BHAVA ( Way of meeting with guest)

1)India a land of different cultural traditional here guest have equal respect as respect of God .here people meet with guest in charming way with namaste and tika and  greeting with flowers garlands.

2)It varies one region  to other relgion as in hindu families traditional culuture runs up from several years as  touches the feet of  guest &namaste similarly in muslims families .It create a charm magical moments to guest . Image result for atithidevo bhava

DRESS                                                                                    d                                               1) Dress style varies from one region to other region ;state to state . people wear both traditional and western clothes .when a child born;langotos and loin clothes  are only equipment cover the whole body .Indian have own epic wearing style dhoti ,saree,salwar kameez,sherwani,and turban etc.  

2) Simple saree wear indian girls varies diffrent styles from one region to another region .Rajasthani and Gujarati womens  wear colourful Ghara Choli  similarly south indian wear half saree with duppatta ,in northern india Churidar kurta famous wear by indian womens. Image result for indian culture dress                                                                         FOOD                                                                                                                                  Indian food are famous for  specicy ,odour and for taste these food varies from one state to another state,region to region .Northern indian food mainly includes Tandoori roti ,kashmiri rogan josh,Dal-Bati. Churma,Rajma-Chawal. similarly begali  Roshogollas ,sandesh ,South Indian food as rice power idli ,Halu payasa,Halbai,dosai ,    Nalli massam ,Dosa.

Image result for indian food        .

DANCE AND MUSIC                                                                                                         Indian history of dance and music are back around 2000 years BC  traditionaly runs up till now.Classical and Contemporary all dance and music are performed here  in India. Kathakali, Banaras gharana, Jaipur gharna,Manipuri,Orissa,Bharatnatyam,Kuchipudi,these are classical dancinggand varoius form of folk tribal which can be find in india these dance are attached with religion customs .

In India music are classified as north indian Hindustani style and Indian  Carnatic style of   singing .From Maharashtra ,the fishermen sing “Koligeet Song related to sea .Rajashthani folk are daryacharaja similarly Bengali community sing ” ” amar nishitho rater badol dhara.                                                                                                                                                                         Related image