History of Entrepreneurship in India& Exploitation manipulation Duties

Entrepreneurship is the dynamic process of creating incremental wealth. This wealth is created  individuals who assume the major risks in terms of equity, time, and/or career commitment of providing value for some product or service. The product or service itself may or may not  new or unique  value must somehow  infused  the entre prene securing more ever allocating the necessary skills resources history .

History of Entrepreneurship in India

The history of entrepreneurship is important worldwide, even in India. In the pre colonial times the Indian trade  business was at its peak. Indians were experts in smelting of metals such as brass and tin. Kanishka Empire in the 1st century started nurturing Indian entrepreneurs  traders. Following that period, in around 1600 A.D., India established its trade relationship with Roman Empire. Gold was pouring from all sides.  A region of historic trade routes  vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial  cultural wealth for much of its long history. Gradually annexed the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century colonized the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent nation in 1947.

Economics phase In 19 century In India:

The period 1850-55 saw the establishment of the first cotton mill, first jute mill the first coal mine. In the same period, the first railway line was laid in India. In a period of 25 years, that is,  the last quarter of the 19th century, there were 51 cotton mills more ever 18 jute mills. During the same period, India produced one million tons of coal per  the Indian railways had a mileage of 8,000.  The end of the 19th century there were 194 cotton mills and 36 jute mills,  coal production had risen to over 6 million tons per an . In spite of the very rapid increase in industrialization  the fact that the foundations for the development of modern industries for the utilization of coal and iron resources were laid  the end of the 19th century, India was being gradually converted into an agricultural colony of the British.

Exploitation the manipulation of import – Export Duties :

During the 18th century, Indian goods, especially cotton  silk fabrics, enjoyed a lead over the British goods. The aim of British trade policies was to destroy the supremacy of the Indian goods, protect the interests of British Industries  ultimately succeed in penetrating the Indian market  the machine-made goods.

The declared policy of the East India Company was to encourage the production of raw cotton, raw jute, sugarcane, groundnuts, raw silk and other raw materials and to discourage the production of manufactures in India. This policy of unequal trade was forced on India and since India had been subjugated, she could not retaliate but accept this wanton attack on the industry.

With time many Indian economists took note of the depleting National Income  reduced productivity of the Indian agriculture. The Britishers started the industrial process in India with an aim of supporting its increased demand of ever expanding industries under the industrial revolution process. The British realized that growth of indigenous entrepreneurship will hamper their economic interests in India so the process of De- industrialization initiated. Effort  made to control the trade of Indian industries.



5-Tips for Developing Your Bussiness Communication Skills

Tips for Developing your Communication Skills

In any aspect of your life, communication is key. Think of how many times miscommunication negatively impacted your day, whether with your spouse, kids, friends, or at work.  Proper communication ensures everyone is on the same page  things flow a little easier.


  1. Listen: Communication isn’t all just about you doing the talking. A great deal of communication involves you listening to other people.  One mistake people make is that when someone else is talking they tend to only be thinking about what they want to say when it’s their turn to talk again, therefore they are not fully listening to what is being said to them. That’s when key information is missed.

 2-Pay Attention to What You Are Saying Without Saying It:

Here’s another great example as to how communication is not just about talking. A great deal of it is not done verbally. We communicate so much just with the expression on our faces, the gestures we make, and the way that we stand or sit. When interacting with others, always put your best self forward. Make direct eye contact, stand tall or sit up straight,  give firm handshakes.

3-Know Your Audience:

Have you ever taken notice as to what communication method provides you with the best response? For instance, does your boss not respond to your emails  moreover gives you instant feedback when you stop  her office?  Or may you have a colleague that takes forever to look at the drafts you email them.  Have you thought about printing the materials  giving him a hard copy to look at?  Figure out how your coworkers like to receive information, you’ll find things move along more smoothly.


4-Remember The Message Sent Isn’t Always The Message Received: 

Everyone is their own filter, and not everything comes out how we intend it. Many negative situations can arise from making incorrect assumptions, especially in an email or a text message. In these situations, we often find ourselves determining a tone of voice when there is none. Take a step back and ask for clarification face-to-face if you need to so you don’t end up making something out of nothing.

5-Get to the Point:

Just as you are probably extremely busy with your daily tasks, so are your colleagues. Sometimes a little more background information is needed; other times, it isn’t. Make sure you are concise and clear in what your expectations are in your messaging  you will see a quick turn around in the results. In addition to being direct, keep tips 3 and 4 in mind with this one. Some people might appreciate a little more small talk or respond better with a change in tone.




swiggy is a sustenance requesting -conveyance organization based out of Bangalore, India. Swiggy was enlivened  the possibility of giving a total nourishment requesting -conveyance arrangement from the best neighborhood eateries to the urban foodie. A solitary window for requesting from an extensive variety of eateries, we have our own particular restrictive armada of conveyance work force to pickup orders from eateries  it to clients .


Nourishment conveyance start-up Swiggy said it has brought Rs.105 crore up in a Series B round of subsidizing from Norwest Venture Partners, existing financial specialists Accel Partners and SAIF Partners and a worldwide speculation substance, whose name was not uncovered. Swiggy will utilize the assets to extend to 12 urban areas, including Mumbai, Chennai , Pune, in the following three months. At display, it works in Bengaluru, Gurgaon ,Hyderabad. Established -Sriharsha Majety, Nandan Reddy , Rahul Jaimini  in August 2014, Swiggy brought $2 million up in Series-A financing.

Swiggy is an online portal that provides users with on-demand delivery services from local retailers. It is a food ordering -delivery company based out of Bangalore, India. Swiggy was inspired   thought of providing a complete food ordering and delivery solution from the best neighborhood restaurants to the urban foodie. A single window for ordering from a wide range of restaurants, it has its own exclusive fleet of delivery personnel to pick up orders from restaurants and deliver it to customers.


Swiggy has spread its quality to couple of urban communities in India like Bengaluru, Gurgaon, Pune, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai. It has its central station base at Bengaluru in Karnataka and has built up its corporate workplaces at Hyderabad in Telangana and Gurgaon in Haryana. It is a mainstream application that takes arrange for sustenance conveyance from recorded eateries on its entrance. Swiggy has set up a solid and far reaching circulation system to offer incite and best outcomes.It has a restrictive armada of staff that incorporates administrations of almost eight hundred conveyance individuals dealing with field. They are included in getting orders from chose eatery and conveying it to clients. Conveyance young men are furnished with Swiggy App and cell phones that make following of a conveyance all through routeing calculations simple.

Cost in the Marketing Mix Of Swiggy :

Swiggy has a broad workforce . This adaptability prompts it to permit its client an approach of no base request. This has expanded its client base to an awesome arrangement. Swiggy could bring 2 million dollars up in Series A subsidizing from Accel Partners and SAIF Partners. Amid Series B it raised 16.5 million dollars subsidizing from an undisclosed speculation firm and Norwest Venture Partners.


The online food ordering culture is booming in India, bringing variations in the way traditional restaurants worked. Not long ago, looking for your favourite cuisines and ordering food online seemed like a thing of the distant future. But now, online food ordering has become a normal weekday activity, especially with the working community in metro cities, youth living away from home and looking for easy food options, and housewives wanting a break from cooking. Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru and Delhi are the biggest consumers of these services, but smaller towns are not left far behind.


Owing to fierce competition , vast market, the space is coming up with a lot of innovation catering to customer convenience, satisfaction -retention. Foodpanda, Swiggy, Faasos, Tinyowl (in process of merger with Zomato are currently among the top-rated food ordering apps. Zomato was a ‘restaurant search -discovery app’ business  recently ventured into food delivery.


Founded – Akhilesh Bali ,Amit Kohli, Foodpanda is a Rocket Internet incubatee. Foodpanda was launched in March 2012 in Singapore .Currently operating in 40 countries across five continents. In India, Foodpanda has established itself in Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru, with a presence in 200 other cities. The company is targeting to expand more aggressively in Tier-II and Tier-III cities, with a network of 12,000 restaurants.

It came under the limelight late last year for a series of violations and unheard of transactions, where the company was blamed to have boasted of fake restaurants and number of orders, and inept call centres, all in the name of pushing up its valuation for more funding


Founded in 2008 -Deepinder Goyal, Zomato is India’s largest restaurant guide, listing over 42,000 restaurants across 12 cities in the country – Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Pune, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Lucknow , Indore. It currently operates in 23 countries, including India, Australia , the United States,Chile, Vietnam,Poland,Ghana Only in April 2015, the company ventured into food delivering in NCR and in a month unbundled the feature and launched a separate app-  zomato






India became a British colony following the 1857 uprising.British East India Company was set up to dominate India through its clever use of political strategy, military force. In 1858 India became a colony of the British Empire. Under the British rule, India suffered poverty, famine and lack of freedom which ultimately led to the Indian struggle for independence. The first Module therefore gives an overview of the Indian economy prior during British rule.


British period & Indian economy:

The Economy of India during the colonial era describes the economy of India during the years of the ‘British Raj’ from 1750- 1947. During this period, the Indian economy’s share of the world economy declined from 22% to 1-3%.

India in the pre colonial time had a stable ,efficient economy. There was adequate agricultural, trade – vast handicraft industries. The landowners were not landlords they only had the right to collect the taxes from the workers. India had large trade both within countries of Asian and Europe. There was a balance in imports and exports, the items imported in India were dried fruits, wool, dates , rosewater from Persian gulf; gold, coffee, honey from Arabia; silk, tea, sugar from China; paper, iron, copper, from Europe.

Structure of villages and town

Indian Economy in the pre – British period consisted of two divisions, namely a) Isolated & self-sustaining villages b) Towns which took care of Administration, Commerce , Handicrafts. The means of transport & communication were highly underdeveloped as the size of market was small.

  • Cobblers
  • Weavers
  • Goldsmiths
  • Carpenters
  • Potters
  • Oil Pressers
  • Washer men
  • Barber
  • Surgeons

The structure of Villages 

Three distinct classes existed in villages that were;Agriculturist; Hand–owning and Tenants.

Labor & capital needed was supplied by producer themselves out of their saving or village landlord or village money lenders. Credit agencies gave credit at exorbitant rates of interest. Only source of credit for peasants & artisans were money lenders and the peasants were forced to depend on the money lenders. Artisans & menials were mere servants of the village

Economic Consequences of British Conquest :

The British  rule can be divided into particular period of time; first the rule of East India Company ranging from 1757 to 1858.Second was the rule of the British government in India from 1858 to 1947. British conquest started in 1757 with the battle of Plassey and completed in 1858, during this period the British changed the techniques of production. The industrial revolution helped the British to sell machine made goods give great competition to Indian handicrafts. The British conquests led to break down of the village community partly by introduction of new land revenue system by the process of commercialization of agriculture

Impact of colonial rule of British on India agriculture

Agriculture was the one of essential and main stay of Indian economy. About 80% people were used to cultivate either as principal or secondary occupation. About 70% of the national income used to came from this agriculture side. Agriculture productions were mainly food grain and other crops such as oil seed, sugar cane used for domestic consumption, fiber crops and many more.

Process of Industrial Transition, Colonialism and Modernization

Tariff protection to Indian industries–  In 1923 the government  accepted the recommendations of the first fiscal commission  to gave protection to selected Indian industries against foreign competition. Between 1924 and 1939 several major industries were given protection  the government prominent among them being iron and steel industry , cotton mills , jute , sugar , paper ,pulp industry , matches etc . Indian industrialists took advantage of the policy of protection extended  the government ,developed the protected industries rapidly. They were able to capture the entire Indian market and eliminate foreign competition altogether in important fields.


Description of chief executive natural resources of Myanmar


Chief Natural resources of Myanmar

Since ancient times, the land known today as Myanmar has been famous for its wealth in natural resources of all kinds. Today, Myanmar’s natural resources include oil and gas, various minerals, precious stones and gems, timber and forest products, hydropower potential, etc. Of these, natural gas, rubies, jade, and timber logs are the most valuable and currently provide a substantial proportion of national income. To date, there has been a very low-level of systematic exploration of Myanmar’s natural resources due to lack of modern survey techniques.     I

According to official data, recent foreign direct investment in Myanmar has been concentrated in the oil/gas and hydro power sectors, with mining coming in third position by value. Investment commitments made in the 2010/11 financial year were approximately 30 times the rate of commitments made on average for the previous 22 years.


The main investors by country were Myanmar’s neighbors China (including Hong Kong) and Thailand, followed by South Korea, Singapore, and others. While the vast majority of people in the national workforce are subsistence farmers, the gas industry and the precious/semi-precious stone-mining industries have provided the largest incomes, with gas earning of $3.6 billion for 2011–2012 and precious stones earning of approximately $3.4 billion in 2010 from auction sales.
Despite a shortage of natural gas for the domestic market, most of the natural gas is exported. Currently all gas exports go to Thailand. Yet, a new 1,800-kilometer-long pipeline – which will cross the whole country, from Kyauk Phyu in Rakhine state to Kunming, China – will commence later in 2013


Myanmar is geologically very rich, and mining is significant as a large-scale industry and also in small-scale artisanal forms. Mineral occurrences cover all sectors, including base metals (gold, copper, silver, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, iron, etc.), industrial minerals, energy sources (mainly coal), gems (jade, rubies, sapphires, etc.), as well as “rare earth” minerals. Myanmar is perhaps best known for gold, jade, rubies, sapphires. It is estimated that in the past, 90 percent of the world’s rubies came from Myanmar. The state is currently aiming to control and manage all aspects of production and sale of jade and gems, but in this sector, as well as in the gold sector, large informal and illegal industries exist.


Despite being blessed with an abundance of natural resources, Myanmar’s citizens are among the poorest in Asia and lag behind their ASEAN neighbors in all aspects of human development. Myanmar’s natural resources were managed in unsustainable and transparent ways during decades of military rule and economic mismanagement. Lack of transparency in the past has raised many questions about potential misappropriation. Revenues were used for state needs, among them being military expenses to ensure the military’s control. While natural resources were being sold to neighboring countries, the local population was left empty-handed.


 Opium production in Myanmar has historically been a major contributor to the county’s gross domestic product (GDP). Burma is the world’s second largest producer of opium after Afghanistan, producing some 25% of the world’s opium, and forms part of the Golden Triangle. The opium industry was a monopoly during colonial times and has since been illegally operated by corrupt officials in the Burmese military and rebel fighters, primarily as the basis for heroin manufacture.


Production is mainly concentrated in the Shan -,Kachin states. Due to poverty, opium production is attractive to impoverished farmers as the financial return from poppy is 17 times more than that of rice. The yield during 2012 was 690 tons, valued at US $359 million.

Economic specialists indicate that recent trends in growth have the potential to increase the gap between the rich and the poor in the country, empowering criminal rackets at the expense of democracy

natural resource



 Evolution Of Indian Railways

The origin of Indian railways was primarily done to facilitate the commercial interest of the British. Indian railways, the largest rail network in Asia and the world’s second largest under one management are also credited with having a multi gauge and multi traction system. The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. Indian Railways is known to be the largest railway network in Asia.

History of Indian railway:

The introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter.

The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec’ 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Rorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr’ 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 km (21 miles).On the occasion of India’s Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan.  The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. In 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.

 Development of Indian Railways — Three Phases

 Initial Phase(1853-1880) 

The year 1853 was of great importance in the history of India. On 16 April 1853 the first passenger train was introduced between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 34 kilometers formally heralding the birth of railways in India. Robert Mint Land Breton was responsible for the expansion of railways. By 1880 the network had route mileage of about 14500 kilometers mostly radiating from major ports like Bombay and Calcutta.

Second Phase(1880-1915) 

The second phase saw the introduction of some competition among the major lines in north India i.e. Delhi and Bombay, Punjab and Karachi. With the completion of these lines as well as the main lines serving Calcutta there was a struggle to gain control of shipments for the export trade because Karachi and Bombay had very poor facilities. Calcutta was much farther from Europe but it was able to compete because it held a monopoly on coal and could force up its price and consequently the costs of operation of other lines.All India average prices of charges for freight declined to 50% between 1881 and 1916 due to competition between the northern lines. This was further declined to 84% between 1881 and 1919

Third Phase(1916-1947)

In this period government acted to prevent the further falling of rates by establishing a central clearing house to foster cooperation and reduce competition, key lines were permitted and encouraged to form mergers. In 1886 there was amalgamation of Delhi railways with Punjab, the Indus valley and the Sind Sagar railways.

The expansion of branch lines which the government of India promoted also reduced competition. By 1916, through mergers growth of branch lines and agreement between the firms they began to stabilize.Company practiced price discrimination in order to maximize profit. Block rates were instituted which consisted of premiums charged to shippers who started their goods on one line and later had them transferred to another. This encouraged the use of a single line. Companies charged lower rates to and from ports than for comparable inland distances. These all things had critical effects on the economy.

 Indian Railways and Its Effect on Indian Economy

Railways were the most important infrastructure development in India between 1850 & 1947. They inter-connected all dimensions of Indian society. In terms of the economy, railways played a major role in integrating markets and increasing trade. Domestic -international economic trends shaped the pace of development of railway. Indian railways not only contributed towards economic development of Indian economy but brought about price stability and relief from famine damages among many Indian States. Another major economic change that was largely debated by economists with the introduction of Indian railways was the concept of ‘social-saving’. 

Contributing to Modern Market Economy

Prior to the introduction of railways transportation except in the Indus and Ganges valleys and in the coastal regions was costly undependable and difficult.  It provided rapid, reliable and cost-effective bulk transportation to the energy sector, to move coal from the coal fields to power plants and petroleum products from refineries to consumption centers. It linked places, enabling large-scale, rapid and low-cost movement of people across the length and breadth of the country. In the process, the Indian Railways became a symbol of national integration and a strategic instrument for enhancing trade and market integration.

 Contributing to Economic development

The Indian Railways contributed to India’s economic development and accounted for about one per cent of the GNP. Not only did it become the backbone of freight needs of the core sector. It also accounted for six per cent of the total employment in the organized sector directly and an additional 2.5 per cent indirectly through its dependent organizations. The Indian Railways, with nearly 63,000 route kilometers fulfilled the country’s transport needs, particularly, in respect of long-distance passenger , goods traffic. Today, freight trains carry nearly 1.2 million tons of originating goods and 7,500 passenger trains carry nearly 12 million passengers .



Diversity &Diversity management in workplace (America,London)

Definition of Diversity

Diversity refers to any perceived difference among people: age, race, religion, functional specially, profession, sexual orientation, geographic origin, and lifestyle, tenure with the organization or position and any other perceived difference. Diversity is more than equal employment and affirmative action.

Elements of Diversity






AbilitySexual Orientation

Physical Characteristice


Marital Status

Religious Beliefs

Geographic Location

Parental Status

Personality Type


Diversity management

Roosevelt Thomas ( america) defined managing diversity as “a comprehensive managerial process for developing an environment that works for all employees.” Diversity management is about full utilization of people with different backgrounds and experiences. Effective diversity management strategy has a positive effect on cost reduction, creativity, problem solving, and organizational flexibility.

How to Manage Diversity in a Workplace

Diversity in the workplace means bringing together people of different ethnic backgrounds, religions and age groups into a cohesive and productive unit. Advances in communication technology, such as the Internet and cellular phones, have made the marketplace a more global concept.

Step 1

Confirm that all of your personnel policies from hiring to promotions and raises are based on employee performance. Avoid allowing tenure, ethnic background or any other kind of category into your human resources policies. Managing a diverse workplace begins with strong policies of equality from the company. Once these policies are in place, the company can begin implementing diversity measures throughout the entire organization.

Step 2

Rate the qualifications of the candidate based on the quality of his experience, not age or any other category, when hiring. When you hire a diverse but qualified workforce, you are on the right track towards being able to manage the diversity in your company.

Step 3

Encourage diversity when creating teams and special work groups within the company. If a manager creates a work group that does not utilize the skills of the most qualified employees, then insists that the group be changed to include all qualified staff members.


Barriers and Challenges to Managing Diversity

Most common barriers to implementing successful diversity programs:

Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice: This barrier manifests itself in the belief that differences are viewed as weaknesses. In turn, this promotes the view that diversity hiring will mean sacrificing competence and quality.

Poor career planning.: This barrier is associated with the lack of opportunities for diverse employees to get the type of work assignments that qualify them for senior management positions.

Difficulty in balancing career and family issues: Women still assume the majority of the responsibilities associated with raising children. This makes it harder for women to work evenings and weekends or to frequently travel once they have children. Even without children in the picture, household chores take more of a woman’s time than a man’s time.

Fears of reverse discrimination: Some employees believe that managing diversity is a smoke screen for reverse discrimination. This belief leads to very strong resistance because people feel that one person’s gain is another’s loss.

Resistance to change.:Effectively managing diversity entails significant organizational and personal change.

Among the advantages of diversity in the workplace ( London) are:

Increased Productivity:  Diversity and Inclusion brings in diverse different talents together working towards a common goal using different sets of skills that ignites their loyalty and increases their retention and productivity

Increased creativity and Problem solving: With so many different and diverse minds coming together many more solutions will arise as every individual brings in their way of thinking, operating and solving problems and decision making

Attract and Retain talent that add a competitive edge to any organization.  Feeling included and appreciated increases loyalty and feeling of belonging.  Language skills pool is increased and propels organization forward either to compete in the International global world or to increase its diverse customer base

Help to build synergy in teams and enhances communication skills that brings in new attitudes and processes that profit the whole team

Applying the proper diversity& inclusion management strategies does not only save money on  generated by discrimination lawsuits but is the right thing to do for the business.

It increases market share and create a satisfied diverse customer base bre lating to people from different backgrounds.  It does propel the United States and its status to claim its place and success in the global business world of the 21st century

Description Of Green Communication Network &Various Application

Green Communication Network:

The communication networking which are energy productive with respect to environmental issues are generally termed as green networking. Research field focus at maximizing performance of communication systems. Pattern is now rapidly shifting towards how to produce sufficient performance with low energy expense.




Because of the rapid growth of the Internet and lower price of computer hardware leads to requirement in development of different types of applications from different field.


we know that data centers are becoming one of the major consumer of electricity in the industrialized world and it will rise even higher. like cooling and power conversion.

 1-Bandwidth shared among data centers

Data centers mainly provision higher workload, and often run properly below capacity. Congestion in network changes daily which is basically based on the application used but most of the time congestion are fulfilled by a subset of the network links and switches.

The different bandwidth mechanisms and their uses are:

  1. Fair-Share Bandwidth allocation

  2. TCP
  3. Bandwidth Capping
  4. Second Net
  5. NetShare

2-  Memory storage in cloud

Cloud computing is expanding technologies in the computing industry.In cloud computing, End-user generates a service request for choosing memory of service based resources that are needed.  A transparency mechanism is given in which it let the users to access memories where multiple memories of several resources appear to the user as a single unit.




Wireless systems, which include the development of cellular networks and cellular 4G phone have been executed. Green communication is becoming more focused, for lower radiation and low communication expense.

Green antennas for low radiation in Cellular Network

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) wireless network like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)&Ad Hoc developing rapidly. Techniques that depend on P2P networks lacks energy. So, the problem of minimum energy tops the list.  The Green Cellular Green Antennas are established to reduce the transmission power of Mobile stations.




“Fiber everywhere” are endeavor to improve connectivity and address demand increases from the use of high quality video, 3 G/4 G and other broadband service sand the solution was investments and activity.


Green communications technologies are accountable for carbon footprint generated by human activity. This increases the need to focus on these. Green communication is doing just that. .Environmental friendly batteries, renewable energy resources are the proposed solutions.


In the next generation of mobile communication systems, the net transmit power needed per transmitted bit is anticipated to be lowering fair amount.Both the 3G  LTE and IEEE 802.16 m standards consolidate a different property and techniques that increases spectral productivity and energy efficiency and extend the communication range.


Renewable energy resources play an important role in reducing CO2 gas emissions. Solar power & wind energy can usefully accompany and reduce the net electrical power consumption from the grid. Also, these resources can help power remote The BS sites are the area where the electricity grid is mostly notavailable. This will help in reducing CO2 emissions.


Molecular communication is an emerging pattern where bio-nano machines.(for example: artificial cells, genetically engineered cells) communicate to perform function. The benefits of this “molecular” approach to communications are size,bio compatibility, and bio-stability. Examples of applications are DDS(drug delivery system), bio-hybrid plants, and LoC(lab-on-a-chip)systems.


    1. No harmful emissions emitted in air.
    2. Certain areas can be benefited economically.
    3. Less amount of money is spent because of less maintenance.
    4. It is renewable as it never runs out.
    5. Reduces global warming as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions.




  • Implementation costs are high.
  • Lack of information.
  • No known alternative chemical or raw material inputs.
  • No known alternative process technology
  • Uncertainty about performance impacts
  • Lack of human resources and skills.


Description of Parliamentary form of Government (United kingdom, sri Lanka,Bangladesh,canada)

What is the meaning of Parliamentary form of Government?

Parliamentary form of Government is the system of government in which there exists an intimate  harmonious relationship between the executive and the legislative departments.In a Parliamentary form of government,  the head of the state is usually a different person than the head of the government. A Monarch or a President is usually the head of the state.  In many countries, the Prime Minister is the head of the council of ministers.

The Parliamentary or the Cabinet system originated in England. This form of government exists in countries like Britain, India and Canada. Parliamentary form of government is also called Responsible government.



  1. Existence of a Titular or Constitutional Ruler:
  2. Absence of Separation of Powers
  3. Main Role of the Lower House in Ministry-formation:
  4. Responsibility to the Legislature:
  5. Collective Responsibility:
  6. Intimate relationship between the Legislature and the Executive:
  7. Leadership of the Prime Minister:
  8. Existence of a Strong Opposition:
  9. Cabinet Dictatorship:

Parliamentary system of uk

The two-House system

The business of Parliament takes place in two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Their work is similar: making laws (legislation), checking the work of the government (scrutiny), and debating current issues.

The House of Commons is also responsible for granting money to the government through approving Bills that raise taxes. Generally, the decisions made in one House have to be approved by the other.

In this way the two-chamber system acts as a check and balance for both Houses.

The Commons

The Commons is publicly elected. The party with the largest number of members in the Commons forms the government.

Members of the Commons (MP) debate the big political issues of the day and proposals for new laws. It is one of the key places where government ministers, like the Prime Minister and the Chancellor, and the principal figures of the main political parties, work.

The Lords

The House of Lords is the second chamber of the UK Parliament. It is independent from, and complements the work of, the elected House of Commons. The Lords shares the task of making and shaping laws and checking and challenging the work of the government.

The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, as well as head of government, and is popularly elected for a six-year term. In the exercise of duties, the President is responsible to the Parliament of Sri Lanka, which is a unicameral 225-member legislature.

The President may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve Parliament any time after it has served for one year. A parliamentary no-confidence vote requires dissolution of the cabinet and the appointment of a new one by the President.
Meanwhile, the parliament reserves the power to make all laws.

The people of Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) had the first opportunity of enjoying universal franchise in 1931 to elect their Members to the State Council. The first Parliamentary General Election was conducted in 1947, a year before independence from the British colonial rule of 130 years. The First Parliament was elected in 1947 under Ceylon (Constitution) Order in Council of 1946. The election was held on multiparty system.

After 25 years, the first Republican Constitution was introduced in 1972 with the President as the Head of the State who was to be nominated by the Prime Minister. Later in 1978 the Second Republican Constitution was introduced, which promulgated the establishment of an Executive Presidency and a Parliamentary legislative.

After independence Bangladesh began its journey as a parliamentary democracy. The Provisional Constitutional Order which was promulgated  Bangabandhu6 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a day after his return from Pakistani prison to independent Bangladesh on 11 January 1972 noted the “manifest aspiration of the people of Bangladesh that a parliamentary democracy shall function in Bangladesh.”

The constitution provided for a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model.

The cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister, was vested with the executive power and was made collectively responsible to the parliament, Jatiya Sangsad which was invested with all legislative power. The JS would be a single chamber with 300 general seats to be directly elected from single territorial constituencies through the ‘first past the post’ system. Provisions were also made for 15 reserved seats for women for 10 years to be indirectly elected by the 300 general members.

The constitution provided for a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model.



What Is Socialization ?

Human infants are born without any culture.  They must be transformed by their parents, teachers, and others into cultural and socially adept animals.  The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within a society.

Socialization is important in the process of personality formation.  While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences.  This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another.  For instance, the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals.  In fact, they avoid them whenever possible.  In contrast, the Yanomamö Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive.

How are People Socialized?

Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. We begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process). Sometimes the learning is fun, as when we learn a new sport, art or musical technique from a friend we like. At other times, social learning is painful, as when we learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine for speeding.

Agents of Socialization

The individual responds differently to different socialization patterns. The following paragraphs will help to explain the influences of socialization on an individual.

The most important agent of socialization, family helps mold an individual. The family values, beliefs, religious inclinations and political views shape an individual’s outlook towards society. Parents are the biggest influence for the social development in children.

After family, schools are probably the most important influence on an individual. Schools help pass on knowledge, create awareness and inculcate the feelings of tolerance in individuals. The second step to socialization is schools where a child meets different children and learns to make out the right and wrong in society.

Community and Culture
Community and culture help pass on the religious views and cultural traditions in an individual. A community is the group where an individual meets people with similar ideologies and interact for personal and community growth.

Meeting like-minded people, making friends and hanging out together may seem like a teenagers life. But in fact, each and every individual in society loves to have social contact. Peers have great impact on an individual’s thoughts and line of thinking. An individual learns to behave in a manner that they think will be acceptable to their peers. Peer acceptance is an important part of socialization.

Mass Media
In today’s world, mass media is one of important ways of socialization. People are influenced by the social norms portrayed by the mass media. Political, religious and social views are enforced in a hard way through the repeated exposure and arguments put forth by the agents of mass media.
Through the above explanation, you will understand, that agents of socialization play an important role in an individual’s life. The different positive attributes fed by these agents create harmony in an individual that makes him feel confident and respect social etiquette.


Primary socialization for a child is very important because it sets the ground work for all future socialization. Primary Socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. It is mainly influenced by the immediate family and friends. For example if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group, then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups.

Secondary socialization Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Basically, it is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society. Secondary socialization takes place outside the home. Secondary Socialization is usually associated with teenagers and adults, and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization. Such examples of Secondary Socialization are entering a new profession or relocating to a new environment or society.

Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future positions, occupations, and social relationships. For example, a couple might move in together before getting married in order to try out, or anticipate, what living together will be like] Research by Kenneth J. Levine and Cynthia A. Hoffner suggests that parents are the main source of anticipatory socialization in regards to jobs and careers.

Re-socialization Re-socialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes, accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. This occurs throughout the human life cycle. Re-socialization can be an intense experience, with the individual experiencing a sharp break with his or her past, as well as a need to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values




Organizational socialization

Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learns the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role. As newcomers become socialized, they learn about the organization and its history, values, jargon, culture, and procedures. This acquired knowledge about new employees’ future work environment affects the way they are able to apply their skills and abilities to their jobs. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.