Brief description of soil & use of soil in daily life


The word soil is derived from Latin word ‘solium’ which means upper layer of earth’s surface. This word ‘soil’ has different meaning for different professions. For an agriculturist, it is the loose surface material of the earth is which plants grow.

For a geologist, it is the material which is produced as a result of disintegration of rocks and which has not been transported from its original position. For an engineer, soils are an incremented accumulation of minerals or organic particles occurring in the zone overlying the rock crust.

Basic Characteristics of Soil

Soil consists of different phases of solid, liquid, and gas and its characteristics depend on the interacting behavior of these phases, and on the stress applied. The solid phase includes clay, non-clay minerals, and organic matter. These elements are categorized by their size as clay, sand, and gravel. The liquid phase is composed of water that contains organic compounds available from chemical spills, wastes, and ground water, while the gas phase is normally air. The size, form, chemical properties, compressibility, .


In the Earth’s surface, rocks extend upto as much as 20 km depth. The major rock types are categorized as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

Igneous rocks: formed from crystalline bodies of cooled magma.

Sedimentary rocks: formed from layers of cemented sediments.

Metamorphic rocks: formed by the alteration of existing rocks due to heat from igneous intrusions or pressure due to crustal movement.

Soils are formed from materials that have resulted from the disintegration of rocks by various processes of physical and chemical weathering. The nature and structure of a given soil depends on the processes and conditions that formed it:

Breakdown of parent rock: weathering, decomposition, erosion.

Transportation to site of final deposition: gravity, flowing water, ice, wind.

Environment of final deposition: flood plain, river terrace, glacial moraine, lacustrine or marine.

Subsequent conditions of loading and drainage: little or no surcharge, heavy surcharge due to ice or overlying deposits, change from saline to freshwater, leaching, contamination.


Soils as they are found in different regions can be classified into two broad categories:

(1) Residual soils 

(2) Transported soils

Residual Soils
Residual soils are found at the same location where they have been formed. Generally, the depth of residual soils varies from 5 to 20 m.

Chemical weathering rate is greater in warm, humid regions than in cold, dry regions causing a faster breakdown of rocks. Accumulation of residual soils take place as the rate of rock decomposition exceeds the rate of erosion or transportation of the weathered material. In humid regions, the presence of surface vegetation reduces the possibility of soil transportation particle sizes, shapes and composition.

Transported Soils
Weathered rock materials can be moved from their original site to new locations by one or more of the transportation agencies to form transported soils. Transported soils are classified based on the mode of transportation and the final deposition environment.

(a) Soils that are carried and deposited by rivers are called alluvial deposits.

(b) Soils that are deposited by flowing water or surface runoff while entering a lake are called lacustrine deposits. Alternate layers are formed in different seasons depending on flow rate.

(c) If the deposits are made by rivers in sea water, they are called marine deposits. Marine deposits contain both particulate material brought from the shore as well as organic remnants of marine life forms.

(d) Melting of a glacier causes the deposition of all the materials scoured by it leading to formation of glacial deposits.

(e) Soil particles carried by wind and subsequently deposited are known as aeoliar deposits.

Methods of determining bearing capacity

Methods of computing the bearing capacity can be listed as follows:

  • Presumptive Analysis
  • Analytical Methods
  • Plate Bearing Test
  • Penetration Test
  • Modern Testing Methods
  • Centrifuge Test


  1. Increasing depth of foundation.
  2. Draining the soil.
  3. Compacting the soil.
  4. Confining the soil.
  5. Replacing the poor soil.
  6. Using grouting material.
  7. Stabilizing the soil with chemicals


Estimates of soil properties generally apply to a depth of about 5 to 6 feet. Interpretations therefore normally do not apply to depths greater than 5 to 6 feet.

  1. Select potential residential, industrial, commercial, and recreational areas.
  2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways, pipelines, and underground cables.
  3. Plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and other structures for controlling water and conserving soil.
  4. Correlate performance of structures already built with properties of the kinds of soil on which they are built, for the purpose of predicting performance of structures on the same or similar kinds of soil in other locations.
  5. Predict the traffic ability of soils for cross-country movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
  6. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a particular area.

Nanotechnology& Nano particles

What is nanotechnology?

A generally accepted definition is: The application of science that deals with elements in the range of 100 nano-metres to one tenth of a nano-metre in size’

Nanotechnology can be generally defined as fabrication and manipulation of structures that have at least one dimension or contain components with at least one dimension that is approximately 1-100 nm.

Various types nanomaterials  used in nanotechnolog



Liposomes are vesicular structures with an aqueous core surrounded by a hydrophobic lipid bilayer, created by the extrusion of phospholipids. They are most widely known cosmetic delivery systems. Liposomes can vary in size, from 15 nm up to several μm and can have either a single layer  or multi layer structure.

Liposomes have been formed that facilitate the continuous supply of agents into the cells over a sustained period of time, making them an ideal candidate for the delivery of vitamins and other molecules to regenerate the epidermis. They have also been used in the treatment of hair loss. Minoxidil, a vasodilator, is in the active ingredient in products like Reginae that claim to prevent or slow hair loss.


Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nano structured particles of bi-continuous cubic liquid crystalline phase. It is formed by the self assembly of liquid crystalline particles of certain surface when mixed with water and a micro structure at a certain ratio. Cubosomes offer a large surface area, low viscosity and can exist at almost any dilution level. They have high heat stability and are capable of carrying hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. Combined with the low cost of the raw materials and the potential for controlled release through function, they are an attractive choice for cosmetic applications as well as for drug delivery.

Hydro gels:

They are 3D hydrophilic polymer networks that swell in water or biological fluids without dissolving as a result of chemical or physical cross-links. They can predict future changes and change their property accordingly to prevent the damage

Nano crystals:

Nano crystals are crystals having size less than 1μm. Typical sizes of these aggregates are between 10-400 nm . Nano crystals of poorly soluble drugs can also be incorporated in cosmetic products where they provide high penetration power through dermal application.


Dendrimers are uni molecular, mono disperse, mini nano structures, around 20 nm in size, with a well-defined, regularly branched symmetrical structure and a high density of functional end groups at their periphery. A dendrimer is typically symmetric around the core, and often adopts a spherical three-dimensional morphology


Niosomes are vesicles composed of non ionic surface, such as poly oxyethylene alkyl ethers or esters. The ultra structure of these vesicles is quite similar to that of mammalian milk, which contains nano-sized fat droplets surrounded by the milk fat globular membrane.The advantages of using niosomes in cosmetic and skin care applications include their ability to increase the stability of entrapped drugs, improved bio  availability of poorly absorbed ingredients .


Methods for the preparation of nano particles:-

  1. The sol–gel method
  2. Vacuum deposition method
  3. Ball milling method
  4. Pyrolysis
  5. Other methods like Arc (DC) plasma, Laser Processes, Wire electrical explosion, Sputtering, Droplet-to-Particle Conversion, Flame synthesis.
  6. The sol–gel method:

Silver nano particles; for example, is prepared by mixing the AgNO3 solution with tetraethylorthosilicate, ethanol and water then with a few drops of HNO3 as a catalyst.

The mixed solution was dispersed and dried. The dried gels were reduced at a temperature of 400 0 C  for 30 min in hydrogen gas. The Ag particles have a size of about 5-10 nm with a profile distribution in the form of log normal distribution. The nano particles are embedded in silica glass in well separated and protected matrix. The preparation of iron nano  particles embedded in glass can be prepared with the same method by substituting FeCl3 for the silver salt.



Vacuum deposition method:-

The presence of inert gas in vacuum chamber and lowering down the substrate temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature during thermal evaporation can reduce the momentum of the evaporated metallic atoms or clusters by collision with gas to obviate their further aggregation on the substrate. The evaporated metal atoms condensed just at where they reached without migration to the potential minimum thereby lose Vander wall attraction between particles. The resulting smokes can be collected from the substrate or walls of the evaporation chamber with the particle sizes can be easily controlled between 30-1000 Å depending on the gas pressure, the evaporation speed, the type of gas used, and the substrate temperature. Direct (DC) or radio frequency (RF) sputtering with the structure of deposited films mostly to be amorphous without substrate heating can successfully deposit refractory metals and alloys.



  1. Ball milling method:-

Hard and brittle ceramic materials can be ball-milled into nano particles to produce nano crystals, non crystals, and pseudo crystals. Powders of 500 nm sizes can be milled into several NM by strong vibrations when mixed with tungsten-carbide spheres.


In pyrolysis, a vaporous precursor (liquid or gas) is forced through an orifice at high pressure and burned. The resulting solid (a version of soot) is air classified to recover oxide particles from by-product gases. Pyrolysis often results in aggregates and agglomerates rather than single primary particles. The thermal plasma temperatures are in the order of 10,000 K, so that solid powder easily evaporates. Nano particles are formed upon cooling while exiting the plasma region. The main types of the thermal plasma torches used to produce nano particles are dc plasma jet, dc arc plasma and radio frequency (RF) induction plasmas.



Methods for preparation of Solid Lipid Nano particles 

High shear homogenization and ultrasound

  1. High pressure homogenization
  2. Solvent emulsification /evaporation
  3. Micro emulsion based SLN preparations
  4. a) High shear homogenization and ultrasound


  • They are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures.
  • A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are often observed.
  • For bulk materials larger than one micrometer (or micron), the percentage of atoms at the surface is insignificant in relation to the number of atoms in the bulk of the material.
  • The high surface area to volume ratio of nano particles provides a tremendous driving force for diffusion, especially at elevated temperatures. Sintering can take place at lower temperatures, over shorter time scales than for larger particles.
  • Suspensions of nano particles are possible since the interaction of the particle surface with the solvent is strong enough to overcome density differences, which otherwise usually result in a material either sinking or floating in a liquid.



Introduction To Skin

Introduction to skin

  • The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
  • The system comprises the skin and its appendages(including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails)
  • The skin has up to seven layers of Ectoderm tissue and guards the underlying    muscles, bones, ligaments and  internal organs.
  • Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
  • There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin
  • As the skin interfaces with the environment, it plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss.
  • Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and pigmented.


Skin performs the following functions

  • Protection: An anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.
  • Sensation: Contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury.
  • Heat regulation: Contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heat loss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.


  • Control of evaporation: The skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.

Aesthetics and communication: Others see our skin and can access our mood, physical state and attractiveness.

  • Storage and synthesis: Acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.
  • Excretion: Sweat contains urea, however its concentration is 1/130  that of urine , hence excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation.
  • Absorption: The cells comprising the outermost 0.25–0.40 mm of the skin are “almost exclusively supplied by external oxygen”, although the “contribution to total respiration is negligible. In addition, medicine can be administered through the skin, by ointments or by means of adhesive patch, such as the nicotine patch or . The skin is an important site of transport in many other organisms.

Water resistance: The skin acts as a water-resistant barrier so essential nutrients are not washed out of the body.

Hygiene and skin care

The skin supports its own ecosystems of microorganisms, including yeasts and bacteria, which cannot be removed by any amount of cleaning. Estimates place the number of individual bacteria on the surface of one square inch (6.5 square cm) of human skin at 50 million, though this figure varies greatly over the average 20 square feet (1.9 m) of human skin. Oily surfaces, such as the face, may contain over 500 million bacteria per square inch (6.5 cm²). Despite these vast quantities, all of the bacteria found on the skin’s surface would fit into a volume the size of a pea. In general, the microorganisms keep one another in check and are part of a healthy skin. When the balance is disturbed, there may be an overgrowth and infection, such as when antibiotics kill microbes, resulting in an overgrowth of yeast. The skin is continuous with the inner epithelial lining of the body at the orifices, each of which supports its own complement of microbes.

Cosmetics should be used carefully on the skin because these may cause allergic reactions. Each season quires suitable clothing in order to facilitate the evaporation of the sweat. Sunlight, water and air play an important role in keeping the skin healthy.

Oily skin

  • Oily skin is caused by over-active sebaceous glands, that produce a substance called serum, a naturally healthy skin lubricant. When the skin produces excessive serum, it becomes heavy and thick in texture.. The oily skin type is less prone to wrinkling, or other signs of aging, because the oil helps to keep needed moisture locked into the epidermis
  • The negative aspect of the oily skin type is that oily complexions are especially susceptible to clogged pores, blackheads, and buildup of dead skin cells on the surface of the skin. Oily skin can be sallow and rough in texture and tends to have large, clearly visible pores everywhere, except around the eyes and neck.


Human skin has a low permeability ; that is, most foreign substances are unable to penetrate and diffuse through the skin. Skin’s outermost layer, the stratum corner, is an effective barrier to most inorganic anodized particles. This protects the body from external particles such as toxins by not allowing them to come into contact with iternal tissues. However, in some cases it is desirable to allow particles entry to the body through the skin.

solid lipid nano particles 

Solid lipid nano particles  are aqueous colloidal dispersion, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids.

It combine the advantages and avoid the drawbacks of several colloidal carriers of its class such as physical stability, protection of incorporated labile drugs from degradation and controlled release.

SLN formulations for various application routes (parental, oral, dermal, ocular, pulmonary, rectal) have been developed and thoroughly characterized in vitro.

Advantage of solid lipid nano particles

  • Use of biodegradable physiological lipids which decreases the danger of acute and chronic toxicity and avoidance of organic solvents in production methods.

Site specific delivery of drugs, enhanced drug.

penetration into the skin via dermal application

  • Possibility of scaling up.
  • Protection of chemically labile agents from degradation
  • In the gut and sensitive molecules from outer environment
  • SLNs have better stability compared to liposomes
  • Enhance the bio-availability of entrapped bio-active and chemical production of labile incorporated compound.
  • High concentration of functional compound achieved.


  • Disadvantages of SLN

  • Poor drug loading capacity,
  • Drug expulsion after polymeric transition during storage
  • Relatively high water content of the dispersions (70-99.9%)

The Use of Nanotechnology in Cosmetics

Nanotechnology is frequently used in many cosmetic product hair care products, make up and sunscreen.

There are two primary uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics.

First, nano-particles are used as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main ingredients as organic alternatives have not been developed yes.

Secondly, nanotechnology is used for delivery particular components. Solid lipid nano-particles and nano-structured lipid carriers, which are used in cosmetic industry for delivery, can replace liposomes and niosomes.

With the help of encapsulation techniques, newer structures can provide better hydration of skin, stability of the agent, bio-availability and controlled occlusion.

Personal care products, which apply nanotechnology

Penetration enhancer Increases penetration of key ingredients into the skin, using so-called nano-emulsions or nano-spheres: anti-wrinkle cream , to avoid uneven skin pigmentation, wrinkles and lines in six weeks using nanotechnology.

Hair products –Carry active ingredients deeper into hair shafts with the help of nano-emulsions.

Sunscreens – “micronizing” of zinc and titanium in sunscreens made them transparent, less smelly, less greasy and boosted their ability to be absorbed into the skin.






Biomolecules are also called the “chemicals of life”. These chemicals form a system which makes up the living things more complex.the are several huge molecules called macro-molecules made up of many simple molecules .these chemicals perform the metabolic activities of the living beings. They can act as catalyst in these processes as enzymes. They form the structure of the organisms.


The term lipid was coined by BLOOR

Lipids include a variety of molecular types, such as neutral fats, oils, steroids, and waxes. Unlike other classes of biomolecule, lipids do not form large polymers. Two or three fatty acids are usually polymerized with glycerol, but other lipids, such as steroids, do not form polymers.

Characteristics of Lipid:

General characters of lipids are:

Lipids are relatively insoluble in water.

They are soluble in non-polar solvents, like ether, chloroform, methanol.

Lipids have high energy content and are metabolized to release calories.

Lipids also act as electrical insulators, they insulate nerve axons.

Fats contain saturated fatty acids, they are solid at room temperatures. Example, animal fats.

Plant fats are unsaturated and are liquid at room temperatures.

Pure fats are colorless, they have extremely bland taste.

The fats are sparingly soluble in water and hence are described are hydrophobic substances.

They are freely soluble in organic solvents like ether, acetone and benzene.

Properties of lipids:

Hydrolysis: Lipids act as efficient catalyst in alimentary canal of animal for hydrolysis ester bonds releasing 3 molecules of fatty acids and 1 molecule of glycerol.

Saponification: When boiled with Na or K hydroxides ,fats are hydrolysed to into Na or K salts of long chain fatty acids which are called long chains of fatty acids called soaps and the hydrolysis is called saponification. The soaps so formed are used for cleaning.

Dehydration :when heated with Sodium hydrogen sulphide OR Potassium hydrogen sulphide the glycerol in it is dehydrated to an unsaturated aldehyde called acrylic .It confirms the presence of glycerol in a fat.

Hydrogenation:on catalytic hydrogenation at low pressure ,hydrogen ads across C=C of the acid components of the tri glycerol.


Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called AMINO ACID, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein. The sequence of aminoacids determines each protein’s unique 3-dimensional structure and its specific function .Mostly proteins are made up of 20 base proteins called MAGIC 20.

Classifications of Amino Acid:

Experts classify amino acids based on a variety of features, including whether people can acquire them through diet.

Accordingly, scientists recognize three amino acid types:


2 -Essential

3-Conditionally essential

Histidine is an amino acid that is categorized as semi-essential since the human body doesn’t always need it to properly function; therefore, dietary sources of it are not always essential. Meanwhile, conditionally essential amino acids aren’t usually required in the human diet, but do become essential under certain circumstances. Essential amino acids or from normal protein breakdowns. Nonessential amino Finally, nonessential amino acids are produced by the human body either from acids include:




4-Aspartic acid


6-Glutamic acid





An additional Amino acid classified  as  the side chain structure that divides the list of 20 amino acids into four groups – two of which are the main groups and two that are subgroups. They are:



acidic and polar

Basic and polar

For example, side chains having pure hydrocarbon alkyl or aromatic groups are considered non-polar, and these amino acids are comprised of Phenylalanine, Glycine, Valine, Leucine, Alanine, Isoleucine, Proline, Methionine, and Tryptophan. Meanwhile, if the side chain contains different polar groups like amides, acids, and alcohols, they are classified as polar. Their list includes Tyrosine, Serine, Asparagine, Threonine, Glutamine, and Cysteine.

Physical properties : protiens show properties like colloidal effect ,tyndall effect, denaturation, renaturation or refolding etc


Chemical properties:protiens react with millons reagent,follins reagent, undergo hydrolysis,nin hydrin reaction etc.



Carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n).This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, Deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.





Oxidation:with mild agents like HOBr,glucose is oxduised to gluconic acid.This reaction is used to distinguish aldoses from ketoses.

They also under go reactions with schiffs reagent ,tollens reagent,molins reagent.


They are organic micronutrient and can not be synthesized by the body and have to be supplemented .their deficiency may cause diseases.they are of two kinds 1)fat soluble- vitamin A,D,E,K 2)water soluble –vitamin B,C


Maintains the growth of human body .

Regulates Ca and PO4 metabolism.

Functions as anti oxidant

Its soiurces are milk ,butter, tomato, leafy vegetable.


Nucleic acids

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of nucleic acids found in the nuclei of living cells. They are the vehicles of genetic inheritance.

Nucleic acids are condensation polymers of nucleotides.The nucleotide consists of a phosohate group,a pentose sugar ,and anitrogen containing base (thymine,cytocyne or uracil,adnine,guanine).


DNA is the cellular molecule that contains instructions for the performance of all cell functions. When a cell divides, its DNA is copied and passed from one cell generation to the next generation.

DNA is organized into chromosomes and found within the nucleus of our cells. It contains the “programmatic instructions” for cellular activities. When organisms produce offspring, these instructions in are passed down through DNA. DNA commonly exists as a double stranded molecule with a twisted double helix shape.

DNA is composed of a phosphate-deoxyribose sugar backbone and the four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In double stranded DNA, adenine pairs with thymine (A-T) and guanine pairs with cytosine (G-C)

Ribose nucleic acid

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is an important molecule with long chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. Just like DNA, RNA is vital for living beings. RNA is formed from DNA by a process called transcription. This uses enzymes like RNA polymerases. RNA is central to protein synthesis. First a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). These all come together and form a complex that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. This requires the help of transfer RNA or tRNA.


Immunotherapy In Cancer

 Understanding Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that boosts the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses substances made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function.

It is the “treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response”. Immunotherapy designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapy, while immunotherapy that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapy.

Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer.

This method has been widely adopted in oncology, particularly in cases that fail to respond to other treatment.

Immunotherapy often employs substances called biological response modifiers (BRM). The body normally produces low levels of BRM in response to infection and disease. Large amounts of BRM can be made in the laboratory to treat cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseas

Cancer Basis

Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. It can develop almost anywhere in the body.

Cancer Beginning:

Cells are the basic units that make up the human body. Cells grow and divide to make new cells as the body needs them. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged they die. Then new cells take their place.

But, Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process. Cells start to grow uncontrollably. These cells may form a mass called a tumor. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

Some types of cancer do not form a tumor. These include leukemia, most types of lymphoma, and myeloma.



Types of Cancer:

Four main types of cancer are:

  1. Carcinomas
  2. Sarcomas
  3. Leukemia
  4. Lymphomas

Cancer & Genes Mutation

Genes are found in the DNA in each cell that makes up your body. They control how the cell functions, including how quickly it grows, how often it divides, and how long it lives. Genes control how your cells work by making proteins that have specific functions and act as messengers for the cell.

There are two basic types of genetic mutations:

Acquired mutations are the most common cause of cancer. They are not passed from parent to child.

Germline mutations which are less common are passed directly from a parent to a child. In these situations, the mutation can be found in every cell of a person’s body.

Mutations happen often and the human body is normally able to correct most of them. Depending on where in the gene the change occurs, a mutation may be beneficial, harmful, or make no difference at all. So, one mutation alone is unlikely to lead to cancer. Usually, it takes multiple mutations over a lifetime to cause cancer.

     Cancer Vaccines

Vaccines, also called vaccinations, are medicines that help protect the body from disease. They help train the immune system to recognize and destroy harmful substances. There are 2 types of cancer vaccines:

Prevention vaccines &Treatment vaccines

Doctors give prevention vaccines to healthy people to keep certain cancers from developing.

There are 2 types of cancer prevention vaccines

HPV vaccine: The vaccine protects against the human papillomavirus (HPV). If the virus is long-lasting, it can cause some types of cancer.

Hepatitis B vaccine: The vaccine prevents hepatitis B virus  infection. Long-lasting infection  can cause liver cancer

Cancer treatment vaccines, also called therapeutic vaccines, are a type of immunotherapy. The vaccines work to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight a cancer. Doctors give treatment vaccines to people already diagnosed with cancer.

  Types of Immunotherapy

Different types of immunotherapy are used to treat cancer, which include:

Monoclonal antibodies: They are drugs that are designed to bind to specific targets in the body. They can cause an immune response that destroys cancer cells.

Adoptive cell transfer: It which is a treatment that attempts to boost the natural ability of the T cells to fight cancer. T cells are a type of white blood cell and part of the immune system.

Cytokines: They are proteins that are made by your body’s cells. They play important roles in the body’s normal immune responses and also in the immune system’s ability to respond to cancer. The two main types of cytokines used to treat cancer are called interferons and interleukin.

Advantages of Immunotherapy

Many reasons why doctor think immunotherapy’s is a good choice,

Immunotherapy may work when other treatments don’t. Some cancers (like skin cancer) don’t respond well to radiation or chemotherapy but start to go away after immunotherapy.

It can help other cancer treatments work better. Other therapies like chemotherapy, may work better when one also have immunotherapy.

It causes fewer side effects than other treatments. That’s because it targets the immune system instead of all the cells in your body.

Your cancer may be less likely to return. When one have  immunotherapy, your immune system learns to go after cancer cells if they ever come back. This is called immunomemory and it could help you stay cancer-free for a longer time.


 Side-Effects of Immunotherapy

Just like any other medication, it also has side effects.

It can harm organ system. Some of these drugs can cause your immune system to attack organs like your heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, or intestines.

It isn’t a quick fix. It takes longer to work than other common treatments. Your cancer won’t go away quickly.

Not everyone responds. Right now, immunotherapy works for less than half the people who try it. Many people only have a partial response. Doctors aren’t sure yet why immunotherapy helps only some people.

Your body could get used to it. Over time, it may stop having an effect on the cancer cells. This means that even if it has a good response at first, tumor could start to grow again.

Some types of immunotherapy amp up the immune system and cause Flu with fever, chills, and fatigue. Can even cause swelling, weight gain, stuffy head and diarrhea. They could make you more likely to get an infection. Or they could affect your nerves or raise your chance of having blood cl

Methods & Drugs

Different forms of immunotherapy may be given in different ways, which includes:

Intravenous (IV): The immunotherapy goes directly into a vein.

Oral: The immunotherapy comes in pills or capsules that you swallow.

Topical: The immunotherapy comes in a cream that you rub onto your skin. This type of immunotherapy can be used for very early skin cancer.

Intravesical: The immunotherapy goes directly into the bladder.


Iummnomodulators is a chemical agent that modifies the immune response or the functioning of the immune system (as by the stimulation of antibody formation or the inhibition of white blood cell activity)

It weakens or suppresses the immune system.

They are used for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has not responded to other treatments and can be controlled only with long-term use.

Side-Effects of Immunomodulators

Trouble breathing

Swelling of face,

or lips,

or tongue,

or throat.

Green chemistry :A New Route TO Protection Of Environment

GREEN CHEMISTRY  is   a program of developing new chemical products and chemical processes or making improvements in the already existing compounds and processes so as to make them less harmful to human death and environment. Green chemistry uses the database information about the toxic and hazardous properties of certain in order to fully evaluate their positive and negative impact. The non  availability of such data in the previous years posed problems to the chemists for evaluating consequences of the chemical substance being  synthesis and green chemistry tries to find the solution of these problems.


PAUL.T.ANASTAS (American) the father of green chemistry. They for the first time in 1991 coined the term green chemistry. Recently Paul T. Anastasio the Director of Yale University’s  for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering.   15 years ago in 1990 the concept of green chemistry was established at the Environment Protection Agency . It was a response to the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990


When we start talking about GREEN CHEMISTRY many of us relate Green chemistry to the branch of science involving plants.  However, it is nothing to do with the chemistry of plants. In fact, it relate to the program of alternative synthetic pathways for prevention of environmental pollution. The expression green chemistry was used by scientists in 1902 after the formation of Pollution Prevention Act 1990.

GREEN CHEMISTRY is simply a way of utilizing the existing knowledge and principles of Chemistry  and other sciences to reduce the  harmful impact on environment due to the compounds.




In the period of 1990’s a variety of ideas and research efforts (such as atom economy and catalysis ) emerged Green Chemistry .

Green chemistry is also known as  “clean” and “sustainable” chemistry .

In 1962 a book Silent spring was written by Rachel Carson . It was a scientific book  it talked about the devastation that certain chemical had on local ecosystem. The book served as wake up call for thee Public  as well as the scientist and inspired the Morgen environmental movement . After this the congress noticed the importance and passed the National Environment Policy Act  in 1969. This was The  first step taken for the environment.

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

  • Prevention

“ It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed”.

  • Atom Economy

“Synthetic method should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in process into the final products”.

  • Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses

Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substance that litter or no toxicity to human health and environment”

  • Designing Safer Chemicals

Chemical products should be designed to preserve Efficacy of function while reducing toxicity”.

  • Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries

“ The use of auxiliary substance should be made unnecessary where possible and innocuous when used”.

  • Reduce Derivatives

Reduce derivatives unnecessary derivatives should be avoided whenever possible”.

  • Catalysis

“Catalytic reagents are superior to chemical reagents”

Use of a catalyst facilities transformation without the catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without incorporated in the final product.

  • Design for Degradation

“Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products”.

  • Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention


“ Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substance”.

“Checking the Progress of chemical reaction as it happens”.

  • Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

“Substance and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to low  potential for chemical accidents, including releases explosions, and fires”.

Design for Energy Efficiency

“Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic method should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure”.

Use of Renewable Feed stocks

“ A raw material or feed stock are often made from agricultural products are the waste of the other processes depleting feed stock are made from fossil fuels or are mined.


Green Chemistry In industry

  • Development of dense-phase carbon dioxide.

Dense-phase Carbon dioxide has been characteristics. This super critical Carbon dioxide is wonderful material which has the ability to clean everything from the plutonium pits to semiconductor wafer as well as clothes. It can also be used as recyclable solvent and finds number of applications in food industry. Future possible uses of the Carbon dioxide  include making cement stronger and also in reducing pollution emission from coal plants.

  • Development of fuel cells for cellular phones which can last full life time of thee phones. These cells are based on methanol-oxygen fuels.
  • Development of new method for synthesizing ibuprofen in 99 Percent yield, avoiding the use of large quantities of solvents and waste associated with traditional methods.
  • Development of a safer marine  compound sea-nine that degrades more rapidly than organised  which persist in Marin environment and cause pollution problems.
  • Development of a method for catalytic hydrogenation of diethanolamine. The new Friendly herbicide in a less dangerous way. This technology represents a major break through because it avoids the use of cyanide  and formaldehyde.


application of green chemistry


  • Dry Cleaning of clothes

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning clothes. The compound contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen. Now a days, Carbon dioxide  along with suitable detergent is used for dry cleaning in place of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Replacement of hydrogenated solvent  Carbon dioxide will result in less harm of ground water.

  • Bleaching of paper and clothes

Chlorine gas was used earlier for bleaching of the paper. These days, hydrogen peroxide with some Suitable  catalyst is used. Hydrogen peroxide is also used for the purpose of bleaching of clothes in the Laundry processes, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.


Agriculture is the one of the most important things for humans.It  plays an important role in the field of agriculture. Green chemistry principle are mostly related to the manufacturing part of the agriculture the pesticide, fertilizers should be non-toxic and should not harm the agriculture by any means And they also not harm humans and environment. There are many ways by which agriculture can be protected by green chemistry like:

  • Minimise the risk of pesticides
  • Using suitable fertilizer
  • Maintain the variety
  • Energy efficiency in the chemicals industry


 1: Availability of green technologies

2: Scale-up and commercial

3: Connecting green chemistry solution providers to industry

4:Understanding of basics of green principle

5: Green chemistry is costly, complex and not viable for SME?

6: Regulatory hurdles

Future aspects of green chemistry:

As we know green chemistry plays very important role for environment. In India present day also there are places where green chemistry should be applied but due to many reasons . In future

Green chemistry should be used there are  many of the reasons 

  • Results in healthier living conditions
  • Is economical and profitable
  • Encourages creativity in the world of chemistry
  • Is healthy for the environment.