INDIAN RAILWAYS AND ECONOMIC CHANGE

 Evolution Of Indian Railways

The origin of Indian railways was primarily done to facilitate the commercial interest of the British. Indian railways, the largest rail network in Asia and the world’s second largest under one management are also credited with having a multi gauge and multi traction system. The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. Indian Railways is known to be the largest railway network in Asia.

History of Indian railway:

The introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter.

The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec’ 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Rorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr’ 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 km (21 miles).On the occasion of India’s Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan.  The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. In 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.

 Development of Indian Railways — Three Phases

 Initial Phase(1853-1880) 

The year 1853 was of great importance in the history of India. On 16 April 1853 the first passenger train was introduced between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 34 kilometers formally heralding the birth of railways in India. Robert Mint Land Breton was responsible for the expansion of railways. By 1880 the network had route mileage of about 14500 kilometers mostly radiating from major ports like Bombay and Calcutta.

Second Phase(1880-1915) 

The second phase saw the introduction of some competition among the major lines in north India i.e. Delhi and Bombay, Punjab and Karachi. With the completion of these lines as well as the main lines serving Calcutta there was a struggle to gain control of shipments for the export trade because Karachi and Bombay had very poor facilities. Calcutta was much farther from Europe but it was able to compete because it held a monopoly on coal and could force up its price and consequently the costs of operation of other lines.All India average prices of charges for freight declined to 50% between 1881 and 1916 due to competition between the northern lines. This was further declined to 84% between 1881 and 1919

Third Phase(1916-1947)

In this period government acted to prevent the further falling of rates by establishing a central clearing house to foster cooperation and reduce competition, key lines were permitted and encouraged to form mergers. In 1886 there was amalgamation of Delhi railways with Punjab, the Indus valley and the Sind Sagar railways.

The expansion of branch lines which the government of India promoted also reduced competition. By 1916, through mergers growth of branch lines and agreement between the firms they began to stabilize.Company practiced price discrimination in order to maximize profit. Block rates were instituted which consisted of premiums charged to shippers who started their goods on one line and later had them transferred to another. This encouraged the use of a single line. Companies charged lower rates to and from ports than for comparable inland distances. These all things had critical effects on the economy.

 Indian Railways and Its Effect on Indian Economy

Railways were the most important infrastructure development in India between 1850 & 1947. They inter-connected all dimensions of Indian society. In terms of the economy, railways played a major role in integrating markets and increasing trade. Domestic -international economic trends shaped the pace of development of railway. Indian railways not only contributed towards economic development of Indian economy but brought about price stability and relief from famine damages among many Indian States. Another major economic change that was largely debated by economists with the introduction of Indian railways was the concept of ‘social-saving’. 

Contributing to Modern Market Economy

Prior to the introduction of railways transportation except in the Indus and Ganges valleys and in the coastal regions was costly undependable and difficult.  It provided rapid, reliable and cost-effective bulk transportation to the energy sector, to move coal from the coal fields to power plants and petroleum products from refineries to consumption centers. It linked places, enabling large-scale, rapid and low-cost movement of people across the length and breadth of the country. In the process, the Indian Railways became a symbol of national integration and a strategic instrument for enhancing trade and market integration.

 Contributing to Economic development

The Indian Railways contributed to India’s economic development and accounted for about one per cent of the GNP. Not only did it become the backbone of freight needs of the core sector. It also accounted for six per cent of the total employment in the organized sector directly and an additional 2.5 per cent indirectly through its dependent organizations. The Indian Railways, with nearly 63,000 route kilometers fulfilled the country’s transport needs, particularly, in respect of long-distance passenger , goods traffic. Today, freight trains carry nearly 1.2 million tons of originating goods and 7,500 passenger trains carry nearly 12 million passengers .


 

 

Mobile cloud computing & applition cloud computing challenge and solution

Mobile Cloud Computing:

Mobile cloud computing is a technology that is a combination of cloud computing & mobile computing. Mobile cloud computing has many advantages such as, it provides flexibility, low cost option, unlimited storage and applications etc.The application in mobile cloud needs computation, multi-media processing and data mining and cloud computing helps in mobile computing by increasing the computing capability.

 

 MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNIQUES

1- Cloud Computing

Cloud computing delivers computing services over the internet on demand and these services are on pay as you go basis. This technology provides access to the data at any time and from anywhere. Cloud services comprised social networking, such as YouTube, Facebook etc., web mail, such as Gmail, yahoo etc., online file storage, such as i Cloud etc. Cloud services can be rented from the third-party vendor .There are many advantages of cloud computing, such as cost efficient, reliability etc., and disadvantages, such as security concern etc.

2- Mobile Computing

Mobile computing is a technology that allows transmission of data over the internet without needing to be connected to a fixed physical link. The mobile communication offers the reliable communication. This include devices, such as protocols, bandwidth etc This concept is reliant on mobile devices that receive or access the mobility services, such as laptop and smartphone or mobile devices etc. Mobile computing offers various in-built mobile applications in a single device, such as mobile browser, games etc.

APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING

1- MOBILE COMMERCE

Mobile commerce applications do many tasks which involve mobility tasks, such as transactions, messaging and payments through mobile devices. Mobile commerce has many advantages and there are some challenges too, such as security issue, low network bandwidth issue etc.

2- Mobile Healthcare:

Mobile healthcare applications are used for medical treatments etc. Mobile cloud computing applied in medical applications to minimize the drawbacks of traditional medical applications, such as limited storage space, privacy and security etc.

3-  Mobile Gaming: 

Mobile gaming has several benefits such as, energy saving, increase in gaming speed because of cloud’s processing power. The advantage of mobile cloud gaming is that gamer can play the games without the need of installing the game. It saves the mobile storage space as well as increase processing power.

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING:

1- Physical Threat

Challenges: SIM card can be removed from the mobile without the permission of the mobile owner and thus can be used by any person.

Possible solutions: Developers can upgrade the security level at the application level. Developer should add security to sim cards and the personal data should not be store on the cards. On using cloud services, when a mobile device is lost backup service is needed, to facilitate the user to recover their personal information from the cloud. Also, advanced security methods can be used like, voice recognition and fingerprints to protect mobile devices.

2 –  Mobile network security threat

Challenges: Dealing with mobile network security threat is a major challenge. The threat could be from the user-side, could be in the mobile network or from the cloud.

Possible solutions: Every mobile user should have their own personalized security configuration so that, only genuine users who can fulfil all the security measures can access data and applications in the cloud. Mobile and cloud services require up-to-date security configuration where cloud providers hold more security levels than mobile network. Finally, there is need to protect the transmission of data between mobile devices and cloud storage.

3- Data Access:

Challenges: The number of data are increasing on the cloud fast. So, dealing with the large no. of data i.e. storing, managing and accessing has become very challenging. This may lead to increase the cost of data communication and processing for users.

Possible solution: Mobile devices users can use local storage as cache to improve the speed and reduce network necessity. As now, user cannot store large data on mobile device, so some data storage management need to apply to determine which data can be cached or used from cloud.

4- Mobile Gaming and Scalability

Challenges: The main challenge is the scalability that can change timely like mobile application stores.

Possible solution: Developers can allow unlimited space through cloud computing and the developers would be free to create any application or game without worrying about scalability of storage space. This will lead to a better experience for users. In the case of a game which is played by millions of users, developer cannot take risk of server crashing or any other issue. The flexibility and scalability is needed on demand so that developer can focus on building the games or applications.

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