Green chemistry :A New Route TO Protection Of Environment

GREEN CHEMISTRY  is   a program of developing new chemical products and chemical processes or making improvements in the already existing compounds and processes so as to make them less harmful to human death and environment. Green chemistry uses the database information about the toxic and hazardous properties of certain in order to fully evaluate their positive and negative impact. The non  availability of such data in the previous years posed problems to the chemists for evaluating consequences of the chemical substance being  synthesis and green chemistry tries to find the solution of these problems.

FATHER Of Green  CHEMISTRY:

PAUL.T.ANASTAS (American) the father of green chemistry. They for the first time in 1991 coined the term green chemistry. Recently Paul T. Anastasio the Director of Yale University’s  for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering.   15 years ago in 1990 the concept of green chemistry was established at the Environment Protection Agency . It was a response to the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

Introduction:

When we start talking about GREEN CHEMISTRY many of us relate Green chemistry to the branch of science involving plants.  However, it is nothing to do with the chemistry of plants. In fact, it relate to the program of alternative synthetic pathways for prevention of environmental pollution. The expression green chemistry was used by scientists in 1902 after the formation of Pollution Prevention Act 1990.

GREEN CHEMISTRY is simply a way of utilizing the existing knowledge and principles of Chemistry  and other sciences to reduce the  harmful impact on environment due to the compounds.

GREEN CHEMISTRY

 

HISTORY :

In the period of 1990’s a variety of ideas and research efforts (such as atom economy and catalysis ) emerged Green Chemistry .

Green chemistry is also known as  “clean” and “sustainable” chemistry .

In 1962 a book Silent spring was written by Rachel Carson . It was a scientific book  it talked about the devastation that certain chemical had on local ecosystem. The book served as wake up call for thee Public  as well as the scientist and inspired the Morgen environmental movement . After this the congress noticed the importance and passed the National Environment Policy Act  in 1969. This was The  first step taken for the environment.

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

  • Prevention

“ It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed”.

  • Atom Economy

“Synthetic method should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in process into the final products”.

  • Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses

Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substance that litter or no toxicity to human health and environment”

  • Designing Safer Chemicals

Chemical products should be designed to preserve Efficacy of function while reducing toxicity”.

  • Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries

“ The use of auxiliary substance should be made unnecessary where possible and innocuous when used”.

  • Reduce Derivatives

Reduce derivatives unnecessary derivatives should be avoided whenever possible”.

  • Catalysis

“Catalytic reagents are superior to chemical reagents”

Use of a catalyst facilities transformation without the catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without incorporated in the final product.

  • Design for Degradation

“Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products”.

  • Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention

 

“ Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substance”.

“Checking the Progress of chemical reaction as it happens”.

  • Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

“Substance and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to low  potential for chemical accidents, including releases explosions, and fires”.

Design for Energy Efficiency

“Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic method should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure”.

Use of Renewable Feed stocks

“ A raw material or feed stock are often made from agricultural products are the waste of the other processes depleting feed stock are made from fossil fuels or are mined.

 APPLICATION OF GREEN CHEMISTRY (Tulsa):

Green Chemistry In industry

  • Development of dense-phase carbon dioxide.

Dense-phase Carbon dioxide has been characteristics. This super critical Carbon dioxide is wonderful material which has the ability to clean everything from the plutonium pits to semiconductor wafer as well as clothes. It can also be used as recyclable solvent and finds number of applications in food industry. Future possible uses of the Carbon dioxide  include making cement stronger and also in reducing pollution emission from coal plants.

  • Development of fuel cells for cellular phones which can last full life time of thee phones. These cells are based on methanol-oxygen fuels.
  • Development of new method for synthesizing ibuprofen in 99 Percent yield, avoiding the use of large quantities of solvents and waste associated with traditional methods.
  • Development of a safer marine  compound sea-nine that degrades more rapidly than organised  which persist in Marin environment and cause pollution problems.
  • Development of a method for catalytic hydrogenation of diethanolamine. The new Friendly herbicide in a less dangerous way. This technology represents a major break through because it avoids the use of cyanide  and formaldehyde.

 

application of green chemistry

GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Daily  LIFE:

  • Dry Cleaning of clothes

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning clothes. The compound contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen. Now a days, Carbon dioxide  along with suitable detergent is used for dry cleaning in place of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Replacement of hydrogenated solvent  Carbon dioxide will result in less harm of ground water.

  • Bleaching of paper and clothes

Chlorine gas was used earlier for bleaching of the paper. These days, hydrogen peroxide with some Suitable  catalyst is used. Hydrogen peroxide is also used for the purpose of bleaching of clothes in the Laundry processes, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.

GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Agriculture (BRAZILIAN):

Agriculture is the one of the most important things for humans.It  plays an important role in the field of agriculture. Green chemistry principle are mostly related to the manufacturing part of the agriculture the pesticide, fertilizers should be non-toxic and should not harm the agriculture by any means And they also not harm humans and environment. There are many ways by which agriculture can be protected by green chemistry like:

  • Minimise the risk of pesticides
  • Using suitable fertilizer
  • Maintain the variety
  • Energy efficiency in the chemicals industry

Barriers of GREEN CHEMISTRY IN INDIA:

 1: Availability of green technologies

2: Scale-up and commercial

3: Connecting green chemistry solution providers to industry

4:Understanding of basics of green principle

5: Green chemistry is costly, complex and not viable for SME?

6: Regulatory hurdles

Future aspects of green chemistry:

As we know green chemistry plays very important role for environment. In India present day also there are places where green chemistry should be applied but due to many reasons . In future

Green chemistry should be used there are  many of the reasons 

  • Results in healthier living conditions
  • Is economical and profitable
  • Encourages creativity in the world of chemistry
  • Is healthy for the environment.

 

5 Most Richest Country In The World

The richest countries in the world measured in terms of GDP( Gross Domestic Product).  GDP is the total markets value of all goods and services produced in a country in year. The richest countries are fully developed and the citizens of that country has standard of living like need of Human rights,medical facilities , education,Proper Drinking water ,Equivalence  atmosphere between political parties. Top 5 richest country in the world -Qatar : Luxembourg:  Singapore: Norway:Kuwait

 

 

  Qatar : Arab nation: GDP  per capita  ($129,076,88)

Qatar  Officially  the state of Qatar is a sovereign country located in the South – west Asia..Capital of Qatar is a Doha . In Qatar Qatari Riyal use as a currency. State of Qatar is a high income economy and has per capita  income in the world .The worlds 3 largest oil and natural gas  reverses accounts for 70%of its government revenue , 60%of its GDP ,85% of its export earning .It  has a fame of having standard of living with lowest tax in the world for its citizens . The country has vast land making it an attraction for investment. Income resources –Crude oil production and refining, Ammonia fertilizers ,steel plants,Bars , commercial ship repair .Qatar,s proved reserves of natural gas.GDP- 13% .Qatar is the richest country in the world and home to the 2022 FIFA  CUP,the first Arab nation to ever hold this role.

 

 

Luxembourg; Europe Country  GDP per  Capita  ($100,991)

Luxembourg is a land locked country in Western Europe .Officially called THE Grand  Douchy  Of L Luxembourg .Capital of   Luxembourg is  Luxembourg City.Euro is main currency of Luxembourg. Luxembourg with just half a million population rank number second  in list of richest country has per capita is ($100,991) which is 9 times of the world average . The nation  is the 2 largest investment fund centre ,high-income market with low inflation and high innovation .Luxembourg known as “ Green heart of Europe ”. Financial sector ,Dynamic industrial, steel , Banking the backbone of this strong economy.Banking in L Luxembourg is a largest of its with an asset of base over $1.24 trillenalone. Income resource – banking ,Iron steel  Telecommunications industry ,Agricultural.28 %of GDP  remunerated for the decline in steel.Average GDP IS 0.9%.Due to attractive corporate tax laws ideal place for headquarters of many international companies.

 

 

Singapore: Asian Country GDP  per capita ($85,00

Singapore is a modern city-state located in South East Asia.Officially known as The Republic of Singapore.The capital city of Singapore is the city of Singapore city.Singapore known for as the Lion city, The Red  Dot ,The Garden city .Currency of Singapore is Singapore Dollar.Singapore ,one of the cleanest cities in the world with best air port in the world.Tourism is the main source of revenue for this country its boost its GDP.Singapore one of the highest business earing Tycoons countries in the world .The country relevant to invest  as it has attractive investment climate ,stable political that makes per capita income 3 highest country in world. Income resource – Biotechnolgy ,Banking ,Exports Electronics ,Energy.Singapore is  also shipping and transportation hub for Asia.Tourism spot like  Woodlands ,Tengeh Reservoir as numerous  visit all over world.It is a second largest busiest port in the world .of It is a small country with 5.5 Million  population a huge percentage Buddhism followed.

 

 

Norway: Europe country GDP per capita ($99,500)

Norway is a sovereign country located in North  of Europe .officially is known as The  Kindom of Norway. Capital of Norway is Oslo.Currency of Norway is known as Norwagian Krone.Commonly known as Land of rising of sun .Norway has been in the list of richest country because of its well-developed economical industry .Norway  4 richest country in the world ,3 biggest exporter of natural gas,7 largest oil exports in the world.It has created  multiple jobs,provide educations and medical facilities to the individuals.  Norway is one of largest and most influential financial markets. Income resources Tourism, exporter of Natural gases, Minerals,Sea food .Today GDP Stands ($95,000) fellow independent monetary policy.

 

 

Kuwait:Asia country GDP per capita  ($73,298)

Kuwait is an Arab country located in the Western region of Asia. Kuwait officially known as The State of Kuwait currency is The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest –valued currency unit  in the world . Capital of Kuwait is Kuwait city. One of the 5 richest country in world( $73,298).It has petroleum –based economy as 6 largest petroleum reveres account for half of GDP .Kuwait  crude oil reserve which ate about 102 billion barress.It gives best job chance to individual of whole world.Income resources – Toursim ,water desalination ,Oil reserves 95% export revenues and government income .In early days little diversity in economics due to positive fiscal situations.It is also ruled by a stable monarchial government which conduct all  the country affairs .

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 Best places to visit in India

India is the birthplace of numerous cultures and religious. It is home to majestic mountain ranges and pristine lakes and rivers, lush green forests. India is breath taking beautiful painfully, frustrating and delightful, cheerful. Apart  from the top 4 places to visit you can imagine.

 

 

Majuli–Jorhat ,Assam (Largest Fresh water  Island)


Majuli is the largest fresh water mid river dweltalic island in the world in Brahmaputra  River  Assam. It covered an area of around 880 sq Km.This land was formed due to course changes in river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Majuli flauts a vibrant culture and  unparalleled scenic beauty .This island is a relaxed ,shimmering mat of glowing of rice field and water meadows bursting with flows.  Its has vast diversity found in Majuli around more than 100 species of birds ,more than 20 reptiles and more than 100 mammals.other attractive place like – kamalabari Satra, Dakinpat Satra, Tangapan

Best time to visit- October to March

 

How to visit – The closed airport is  Jorhat .

 

Darjeeling ,West Bengal (Queen of The Hills)


Darjeeling located in the state of West Bengal. Darjeeling is a small place an amazing destination for enjoying the pristine natural beauty. Darjeeling  known as Queen of The Hills. The greatest attraction in Darjeeling is the view of  The  Kanchenjunga snow peaks, Buddhist monasteries, historical church, waterfall, tea gardens and  its cute toy training in a narrow line which runs along the roadside and beautiful landscape of Darjeeling hills. Darjeeling is the highest tea exporter attracts the many visitor. Darjeeling is a wonderful destination for Trekking and River Rafting,Day Hiking, Mountain Biking .It is hot spot for      Eco-tourism in India .

Best  to time  visit – September to June

How to visit –The nearest air is Bagdogra and the nearest major railway junction is New Jalpaiguri (NJP)

 

Talasari Beach, Odisha( Back Water Beach)


Talasari beach is a beautiful beach located in the Balasore district ,Odisha .Talasari beach is nestled near the Subarnarekhd river and the sea near the Odisha – Bengal border.The water of the sea at Talasari Beach are not turbulent but calm and peaceful.It famous feature  that fascinates tourists in the back water which one need  to relax.Red crabs are also a major attraction apart from beautiful red crabs , the beach will certain with Palm free and coconut tress and casuarina make a beautiful sight.The shimming surface the countless Twinkle all around give this calm beach a sole status its own.

Best time to visit – October –December and February.

How to visit – Talasari nearest railway station -Jaleshwar which is 36 km far from Talasari beach. Nearest airport – Nataji Subhash Chandra Bose international airport a distance around 200 Km from the beach.

 

Pangoon Lake, (Endorheic Lake)


Pangoon Lake ,also known as Pangong Tso is an Endorheic Lake situated at an attitude of about 13,900 feet above sea –level. The sheer beauty of Pangong Tso is the fact that the lake display multiple color from shades of blue, green and even sometimes appearing as reddish. It is an ideal place to visit all over the year round. It is an ideal for nature –lovers and to mesmerizing sight seeing opportunities. This is an important breeding point for several  migratory birds such as  Brahmini ducks and Bar – headed goose. Attractions places spot  Spangmik village  and Pangong Lake.

Best time to visit – May to September as during winter, the Pangong Tso lake gets freeze.

How to visit – The journey starts from Leh to Pangong lake is a 5 hours drive through uneven terrains .Use public bus from Leh which drops  off visitors at the Spangmik village

INDIAN CULTURE AND TRADITIONS

Culture is a term related to development of human being growth influence by socially ;political;migration ;status difference .

In another  form  culture refers  way of life .how  they dress ;how they speak;how they eat food ; how they worship ; art of interaction with other people . Significance of culture is a scientific process  towards human liberation  and  well being life.

CULTURE VALUE IN INDIA

Vast of diversity in culture activity co related to development of unity &peace among the different people lived together in single roof  in different region as belonging to different community present a moral lesson across the world (SABKA SAATH SABKA VIKAS).

On vast canvas of cuture balancing picture of hues and vibrancy .For  a several of centures year india runs on path of unity  supporting and tollerence as the vistors can vist in india found a perfect balanced between unqiueness in culutre and diversity in every platform released value of dediaction in every citizens in this country.

ATITHI DEVO BHAVA ( Way of meeting with guest)

1)India a land of different cultural traditional here guest have equal respect as respect of God .here people meet with guest in charming way with namaste and tika and  greeting with flowers garlands.

2)It varies one region  to other relgion as in hindu families traditional culuture runs up from several years as  touches the feet of  guest &namaste similarly in muslims families .It create a charm magical moments to guest . Image result for atithidevo bhava

DRESS                                                                                    d                                               1) Dress style varies from one region to other region ;state to state . people wear both traditional and western clothes .when a child born;langotos and loin clothes  are only equipment cover the whole body .Indian have own epic wearing style dhoti ,saree,salwar kameez,sherwani,and turban etc.  

2) Simple saree wear indian girls varies diffrent styles from one region to another region .Rajasthani and Gujarati womens  wear colourful Ghara Choli  similarly south indian wear half saree with duppatta ,in northern india Churidar kurta famous wear by indian womens. Image result for indian culture dress                                                                         FOOD                                                                                                                                  Indian food are famous for  specicy ,odour and for taste these food varies from one state to another state,region to region .Northern indian food mainly includes Tandoori roti ,kashmiri rogan josh,Dal-Bati. Churma,Rajma-Chawal. similarly begali  Roshogollas ,sandesh ,South Indian food as rice power idli ,Halu payasa,Halbai,dosai ,    Nalli massam ,Dosa.

Image result for indian food        .

DANCE AND MUSIC                                                                                                         Indian history of dance and music are back around 2000 years BC  traditionaly runs up till now.Classical and Contemporary all dance and music are performed here  in India. Kathakali, Banaras gharana, Jaipur gharna,Manipuri,Orissa,Bharatnatyam,Kuchipudi,these are classical dancinggand varoius form of folk tribal which can be find in india these dance are attached with religion customs .

In India music are classified as north indian Hindustani style and Indian  Carnatic style of   singing .From Maharashtra ,the fishermen sing “Koligeet Song related to sea .Rajashthani folk are daryacharaja similarly Bengali community sing ” ” amar nishitho rater badol dhara.                                                                                                                                                                         Related image

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