ECONOMICS HISTORY OF INDIA (1857-1947) BRITISH TIME PERIOD

INDIAN ECONOMICS HISTORY :

India became a British colony following the 1857 uprising.British East India Company was set up to dominate India through its clever use of political strategy, military force. In 1858 India became a colony of the British Empire. Under the British rule, India suffered poverty, famine and lack of freedom which ultimately led to the Indian struggle for independence. The first Module therefore gives an overview of the Indian economy prior during British rule.

INDIA
INDIA

British period & Indian economy:

The Economy of India during the colonial era describes the economy of India during the years of the ‘British Raj’ from 1750- 1947. During this period, the Indian economy’s share of the world economy declined from 22% to 1-3%.

India in the pre colonial time had a stable ,efficient economy. There was adequate agricultural, trade – vast handicraft industries. The landowners were not landlords they only had the right to collect the taxes from the workers. India had large trade both within countries of Asian and Europe. There was a balance in imports and exports, the items imported in India were dried fruits, wool, dates , rosewater from Persian gulf; gold, coffee, honey from Arabia; silk, tea, sugar from China; paper, iron, copper, from Europe.

Structure of villages and town

Indian Economy in the pre – British period consisted of two divisions, namely a) Isolated & self-sustaining villages b) Towns which took care of Administration, Commerce , Handicrafts. The means of transport & communication were highly underdeveloped as the size of market was small.

  • Cobblers
  • Weavers
  • Goldsmiths
  • Carpenters
  • Potters
  • Oil Pressers
  • Washer men
  • Barber
  • Surgeons

The structure of Villages 

Three distinct classes existed in villages that were;Agriculturist; Hand–owning and Tenants.

Labor & capital needed was supplied by producer themselves out of their saving or village landlord or village money lenders. Credit agencies gave credit at exorbitant rates of interest. Only source of credit for peasants & artisans were money lenders and the peasants were forced to depend on the money lenders. Artisans & menials were mere servants of the village

Economic Consequences of British Conquest :

The British  rule can be divided into particular period of time; first the rule of East India Company ranging from 1757 to 1858.Second was the rule of the British government in India from 1858 to 1947. British conquest started in 1757 with the battle of Plassey and completed in 1858, during this period the British changed the techniques of production. The industrial revolution helped the British to sell machine made goods give great competition to Indian handicrafts. The British conquests led to break down of the village community partly by introduction of new land revenue system by the process of commercialization of agriculture

Impact of colonial rule of British on India agriculture

Agriculture was the one of essential and main stay of Indian economy. About 80% people were used to cultivate either as principal or secondary occupation. About 70% of the national income used to came from this agriculture side. Agriculture productions were mainly food grain and other crops such as oil seed, sugar cane used for domestic consumption, fiber crops and many more.

Process of Industrial Transition, Colonialism and Modernization

Tariff protection to Indian industries–  In 1923 the government  accepted the recommendations of the first fiscal commission  to gave protection to selected Indian industries against foreign competition. Between 1924 and 1939 several major industries were given protection  the government prominent among them being iron and steel industry , cotton mills , jute , sugar , paper ,pulp industry , matches etc . Indian industrialists took advantage of the policy of protection extended  the government ,developed the protected industries rapidly. They were able to capture the entire Indian market and eliminate foreign competition altogether in important fields.

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Brief desciption to the Ancient The Indus valley civilization&Mohenjo Daro

Where is the Indus valley ?

The Indus Valley is on the border between India,Pakistan and Afghanistan.The main city may have been Mohenjo-Daro but it could have been Harappa.

To the West of Mohenjo-Daro are the Highlands.North East of Mohenjo Daro are the Himalayan mountains.

When was the Harappan Civilization at its peak in the Indus Valley?

The Indus Valley civilization lived in the Valley about 4000 years ago, 2600-1900 B.C. It was discovered by numerous scientists and archaeologists in 1921. Alexander Cunningham, the director general of the Archaeological Survey in India, visited the Harappan ruins to look at the Buddhist remains along with the next director of the ASI, John Marshall. They set up an excavation to investigate the mysterious ancient ruins. The dig began in 1920 led by archaeologist Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni.   Many different art facts have been uncovered in the Indus Valleys main cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

The Civilization in the Indus Valley

The people in the Indus valley formed the earliest urban civilization in  the sub Indian  continent and one of the earliest in the world.Another name for the Indus valley civilization is the Harappan civilization. The first excavations that were made in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro which were conducted in 1921-1922. Excavations also discovered that men and women dressed in colourful robes , the women also wore lipstick! For dinner it might have been hot bread served with barley or rice.  . The Indus valley civilization was a  wonderful pla

Why did the Harappan civilization decide to live in the Indus Valley?

The Indus Valley civilization may of lived there because of the Indus River which flows through the valley. It over-flowed every year leaving soil perfect for growing crops in. It could of also been used for transport and food such as fish. The Indus Valley was also well protected by the Himalayan Mountain Range.

Streets -Buildings

The Indus tribe lived in houses just like today. They where built from bricks and cement and must have been very strong because lots of these buildings are still standing today. They had a very complex city structure with one to two floors, to each building, yet there has been no evidence that the tribe had doors separating any of the rooms.

The Indus tribe lived in houses just like today. They where built from bricks and cement and must have been very strong because lots of these buildings are still standing today. They had a very complex city structure with one to two floors, to each building, yet there has been no evidence that the tribe had doors separating any of the rooms.

The Great Bath

The bath is made from tightly fitted bricks which had tar on the inside of the bath. The tar was used as a water proof layer so the people could bath. Archaeologists aren’t sure how they filled it up but they found a well near by.

The bath was 12 metres long and 7 metres wide. Archaeologists think, where the brick pedestals are, there use to be really tall pillars.

The Drainage System

There is  evidence of very sophisticated drainage systems in the cities of the Indus Civilisation. The drainage systems were so big that a human would have been able to walk through the middle of one. This was really helpful because if the drain was blocked, the drain could be easily accessed. They were also very clever because they used cement and clay bricks to make the drains, which always sloped downhill. There is evidence which shows lots of small footprints in the bricks. This may indicate that children helped to make the bricks.

Indus valley toys

These toy figures are made out of clay . They were for children to play with.The wood could of rotted so they might of put wood back on. The axels are replaced as well as the poles on the back of the cart.

These are ceramic sculptures of a small cart with vases and tools pulled by oxen,from Mohenjo-daro.

Dice

Physical and written evidence of dice and dominoes  have been uncovered by archaeologists studying the Ancient Indus. Also they were studying ancient China, Meso-America, Egypt, Greece and Rome. An ancient form of Ludo was played as well as an ancient form of chess, which was played in the Indus valley. A board, uncovered in the area of Mohenjo-Daro, was said to be the oldest chess board discovered in the Seals of the Indus Valley

The seals are the key which archaeologists used to realised that the Indus civilization really exists. There was two seals found in 1924 in two different ancient cities six hundred km apart which proved the two cities were linked. The seals were used for part of trade and some seals have their family names carved on.  This is a terracotta seal from Mohenjo-daro depicting a collection of animals and some script symbols. This sealing may have been used in specific rituals as a narrative token that tells the story of an important myth.

Indus valley’s jewellery

The Indus valley is rich in many metals and worthy stones such as Carnelian, gold, copper, turquoise and other metals/semi precious stones. The people of the Indus valley didn’t get the precious materials themselves, they traded with other nearby cities who had  originally mined these expensive jewels and stones . They then brought them back to their own civilization and then fashioned them into jewellery.

 

Green chemistry :A New Route TO Protection Of Environment

GREEN CHEMISTRY  is   a program of developing new chemical products and chemical processes or making improvements in the already existing compounds and processes so as to make them less harmful to human death and environment. Green chemistry uses the database information about the toxic and hazardous properties of certain in order to fully evaluate their positive and negative impact. The non  availability of such data in the previous years posed problems to the chemists for evaluating consequences of the chemical substance being  synthesis and green chemistry tries to find the solution of these problems.

FATHER Of Green  CHEMISTRY:

PAUL.T.ANASTAS (American) the father of green chemistry. They for the first time in 1991 coined the term green chemistry. Recently Paul T. Anastasio the Director of Yale University’s  for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering.   15 years ago in 1990 the concept of green chemistry was established at the Environment Protection Agency . It was a response to the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

Introduction:

When we start talking about GREEN CHEMISTRY many of us relate Green chemistry to the branch of science involving plants.  However, it is nothing to do with the chemistry of plants. In fact, it relate to the program of alternative synthetic pathways for prevention of environmental pollution. The expression green chemistry was used by scientists in 1902 after the formation of Pollution Prevention Act 1990.

GREEN CHEMISTRY is simply a way of utilizing the existing knowledge and principles of Chemistry  and other sciences to reduce the  harmful impact on environment due to the compounds.

GREEN CHEMISTRY

 

HISTORY :

In the period of 1990’s a variety of ideas and research efforts (such as atom economy and catalysis ) emerged Green Chemistry .

Green chemistry is also known as  “clean” and “sustainable” chemistry .

In 1962 a book Silent spring was written by Rachel Carson . It was a scientific book  it talked about the devastation that certain chemical had on local ecosystem. The book served as wake up call for thee Public  as well as the scientist and inspired the Morgen environmental movement . After this the congress noticed the importance and passed the National Environment Policy Act  in 1969. This was The  first step taken for the environment.

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

  • Prevention

“ It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed”.

  • Atom Economy

“Synthetic method should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in process into the final products”.

  • Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses

Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substance that litter or no toxicity to human health and environment”

  • Designing Safer Chemicals

Chemical products should be designed to preserve Efficacy of function while reducing toxicity”.

  • Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries

“ The use of auxiliary substance should be made unnecessary where possible and innocuous when used”.

  • Reduce Derivatives

Reduce derivatives unnecessary derivatives should be avoided whenever possible”.

  • Catalysis

“Catalytic reagents are superior to chemical reagents”

Use of a catalyst facilities transformation without the catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without incorporated in the final product.

  • Design for Degradation

“Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products”.

  • Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention

 

“ Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substance”.

“Checking the Progress of chemical reaction as it happens”.

  • Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

“Substance and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to low  potential for chemical accidents, including releases explosions, and fires”.

Design for Energy Efficiency

“Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic method should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure”.

Use of Renewable Feed stocks

“ A raw material or feed stock are often made from agricultural products are the waste of the other processes depleting feed stock are made from fossil fuels or are mined.

 APPLICATION OF GREEN CHEMISTRY (Tulsa):

Green Chemistry In industry

  • Development of dense-phase carbon dioxide.

Dense-phase Carbon dioxide has been characteristics. This super critical Carbon dioxide is wonderful material which has the ability to clean everything from the plutonium pits to semiconductor wafer as well as clothes. It can also be used as recyclable solvent and finds number of applications in food industry. Future possible uses of the Carbon dioxide  include making cement stronger and also in reducing pollution emission from coal plants.

  • Development of fuel cells for cellular phones which can last full life time of thee phones. These cells are based on methanol-oxygen fuels.
  • Development of new method for synthesizing ibuprofen in 99 Percent yield, avoiding the use of large quantities of solvents and waste associated with traditional methods.
  • Development of a safer marine  compound sea-nine that degrades more rapidly than organised  which persist in Marin environment and cause pollution problems.
  • Development of a method for catalytic hydrogenation of diethanolamine. The new Friendly herbicide in a less dangerous way. This technology represents a major break through because it avoids the use of cyanide  and formaldehyde.

 

application of green chemistry

GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Daily  LIFE:

  • Dry Cleaning of clothes

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning clothes. The compound contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen. Now a days, Carbon dioxide  along with suitable detergent is used for dry cleaning in place of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Replacement of hydrogenated solvent  Carbon dioxide will result in less harm of ground water.

  • Bleaching of paper and clothes

Chlorine gas was used earlier for bleaching of the paper. These days, hydrogen peroxide with some Suitable  catalyst is used. Hydrogen peroxide is also used for the purpose of bleaching of clothes in the Laundry processes, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.

GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Agriculture (BRAZILIAN):

Agriculture is the one of the most important things for humans.It  plays an important role in the field of agriculture. Green chemistry principle are mostly related to the manufacturing part of the agriculture the pesticide, fertilizers should be non-toxic and should not harm the agriculture by any means And they also not harm humans and environment. There are many ways by which agriculture can be protected by green chemistry like:

  • Minimise the risk of pesticides
  • Using suitable fertilizer
  • Maintain the variety
  • Energy efficiency in the chemicals industry

Barriers of GREEN CHEMISTRY IN INDIA:

 1: Availability of green technologies

2: Scale-up and commercial

3: Connecting green chemistry solution providers to industry

4:Understanding of basics of green principle

5: Green chemistry is costly, complex and not viable for SME?

6: Regulatory hurdles

Future aspects of green chemistry:

As we know green chemistry plays very important role for environment. In India present day also there are places where green chemistry should be applied but due to many reasons . In future

Green chemistry should be used there are  many of the reasons 

  • Results in healthier living conditions
  • Is economical and profitable
  • Encourages creativity in the world of chemistry
  • Is healthy for the environment.

 

4 Best places to visit in India

India is the birthplace of numerous cultures and religious. It is home to majestic mountain ranges and pristine lakes and rivers, lush green forests. India is breath taking beautiful painfully, frustrating and delightful, cheerful. Apart  from the top 4 places to visit you can imagine.

 

 

Majuli–Jorhat ,Assam (Largest Fresh water  Island)


Majuli is the largest fresh water mid river dweltalic island in the world in Brahmaputra  River  Assam. It covered an area of around 880 sq Km.This land was formed due to course changes in river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Majuli flauts a vibrant culture and  unparalleled scenic beauty .This island is a relaxed ,shimmering mat of glowing of rice field and water meadows bursting with flows.  Its has vast diversity found in Majuli around more than 100 species of birds ,more than 20 reptiles and more than 100 mammals.other attractive place like – kamalabari Satra, Dakinpat Satra, Tangapan

Best time to visit- October to March

 

How to visit – The closed airport is  Jorhat .

 

Darjeeling ,West Bengal (Queen of The Hills)


Darjeeling located in the state of West Bengal. Darjeeling is a small place an amazing destination for enjoying the pristine natural beauty. Darjeeling  known as Queen of The Hills. The greatest attraction in Darjeeling is the view of  The  Kanchenjunga snow peaks, Buddhist monasteries, historical church, waterfall, tea gardens and  its cute toy training in a narrow line which runs along the roadside and beautiful landscape of Darjeeling hills. Darjeeling is the highest tea exporter attracts the many visitor. Darjeeling is a wonderful destination for Trekking and River Rafting,Day Hiking, Mountain Biking .It is hot spot for      Eco-tourism in India .

Best  to time  visit – September to June

How to visit –The nearest air is Bagdogra and the nearest major railway junction is New Jalpaiguri (NJP)

 

Talasari Beach, Odisha( Back Water Beach)


Talasari beach is a beautiful beach located in the Balasore district ,Odisha .Talasari beach is nestled near the Subarnarekhd river and the sea near the Odisha – Bengal border.The water of the sea at Talasari Beach are not turbulent but calm and peaceful.It famous feature  that fascinates tourists in the back water which one need  to relax.Red crabs are also a major attraction apart from beautiful red crabs , the beach will certain with Palm free and coconut tress and casuarina make a beautiful sight.The shimming surface the countless Twinkle all around give this calm beach a sole status its own.

Best time to visit – October –December and February.

How to visit – Talasari nearest railway station -Jaleshwar which is 36 km far from Talasari beach. Nearest airport – Nataji Subhash Chandra Bose international airport a distance around 200 Km from the beach.

 

Pangoon Lake, (Endorheic Lake)


Pangoon Lake ,also known as Pangong Tso is an Endorheic Lake situated at an attitude of about 13,900 feet above sea –level. The sheer beauty of Pangong Tso is the fact that the lake display multiple color from shades of blue, green and even sometimes appearing as reddish. It is an ideal place to visit all over the year round. It is an ideal for nature –lovers and to mesmerizing sight seeing opportunities. This is an important breeding point for several  migratory birds such as  Brahmini ducks and Bar – headed goose. Attractions places spot  Spangmik village  and Pangong Lake.

Best time to visit – May to September as during winter, the Pangong Tso lake gets freeze.

How to visit – The journey starts from Leh to Pangong lake is a 5 hours drive through uneven terrains .Use public bus from Leh which drops  off visitors at the Spangmik village