Entrepreneurship is the dynamic process of creating incremental wealth. This wealth is created individuals who assume the major risks in terms of equity, time, and/or career commitment of providing value for some product or service. The product or service itself may or may not new or unique value must somehow infused the entre prene securing more ever allocating the necessary skills resources history .
History of Entrepreneurship in India
The history of entrepreneurship is important worldwide, even in India. In the pre colonial times the Indian trade business was at its peak. Indians were experts in smelting of metals such as brass and tin. Kanishka Empire in the 1st century started nurturing Indian entrepreneurs traders. Following that period, in around 1600 A.D., India established its trade relationship with Roman Empire. Gold was pouring from all sides. A region of historic trade routes vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial cultural wealth for much of its long history. Gradually annexed the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century colonized the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent nation in 1947.
Economics phase In 19 century In India:
The period 1850-55 saw the establishment of the first cotton mill, first jute mill the first coal mine. In the same period, the first railway line was laid in India. In a period of 25 years, that is, the last quarter of the 19th century, there were 51 cotton mills more ever 18 jute mills. During the same period, India produced one million tons of coal per the Indian railways had a mileage of 8,000. The end of the 19th century there were 194 cotton mills and 36 jute mills, coal production had risen to over 6 million tons per an . In spite of the very rapid increase in industrialization the fact that the foundations for the development of modern industries for the utilization of coal and iron resources were laid the end of the 19th century, India was being gradually converted into an agricultural colony of the British.
Exploitation the manipulation of import – Export Duties :
During the 18th century, Indian goods, especially cotton silk fabrics, enjoyed a lead over the British goods. The aim of British trade policies was to destroy the supremacy of the Indian goods, protect the interests of British Industries ultimately succeed in penetrating the Indian market the machine-made goods.
The declared policy of the East India Company was to encourage the production of raw cotton, raw jute, sugarcane, groundnuts, raw silk and other raw materials and to discourage the production of manufactures in India. This policy of unequal trade was forced on India and since India had been subjugated, she could not retaliate but accept this wanton attack on the industry.
With time many Indian economists took note of the depleting National Income reduced productivity of the Indian agriculture. The Britishers started the industrial process in India with an aim of supporting its increased demand of ever expanding industries under the industrial revolution process. The British realized that growth of indigenous entrepreneurship will hamper their economic interests in India so the process of De- industrialization initiated. Effort made to control the trade of Indian industries.
India became a British colony following the 1857 uprising.British East India Company was set up to dominate India through its clever use of political strategy, military force. In 1858 India became a colony of the British Empire. Under the British rule, India suffered poverty, famine and lack of freedom which ultimately led to the Indian struggle for independence. The first Module therefore gives an overview of the Indian economy prior during British rule.
British period & Indian economy:
The Economy of India during the colonial era describes the economy of India during the years of the ‘British Raj’ from 1750- 1947. During this period, the Indian economy’s share of the world economy declined from 22% to 1-3%.
India in the pre colonial time had a stable ,efficient economy. There was adequate agricultural, trade – vast handicraft industries. The landowners were not landlords they only had the right to collect the taxes from the workers. India had large trade both within countries of Asian and Europe. There was a balance in imports and exports, the items imported in India were dried fruits, wool, dates , rosewater from Persian gulf; gold, coffee, honey from Arabia; silk, tea, sugar from China; paper, iron, copper, from Europe.
Structure of villages and town
Indian Economy in the pre – British period consisted of two divisions, namely a) Isolated & self-sustaining villages b) Towns which took care of Administration, Commerce , Handicrafts. The means of transport & communication were highly underdeveloped as the size of market was small.
The structure of Villages
Three distinct classes existed in villages that were;Agriculturist; Hand–owning and Tenants.
Labor & capital needed was supplied by producer themselves out of their saving or village landlord or village money lenders. Credit agencies gave credit at exorbitant rates of interest. Only source of credit for peasants & artisans were money lenders and the peasants were forced to depend on the money lenders. Artisans & menials were mere servants of the village
Economic Consequences of British Conquest :
The British rule can be divided into particular period of time; first the rule of East India Company ranging from 1757 to 1858.Second was the rule of the British government in India from 1858 to 1947. British conquest started in 1757 with the battle of Plassey and completed in 1858, during this period the British changed the techniques of production. The industrial revolution helped the British to sell machine made goods give great competition to Indian handicrafts. The British conquests led to break down of the village community partly by introduction of new land revenue system by the process of commercialization of agriculture
Impact of colonial rule of British on India agriculture
Agriculture was the one of essential and main stay of Indian economy. About 80% people were used to cultivate either as principal or secondary occupation. About 70% of the national income used to came from this agriculture side. Agriculture productions were mainly food grain and other crops such as oil seed, sugar cane used for domestic consumption, fiber crops and many more.
Process of Industrial Transition, Colonialism and Modernization
Tariff protection to Indian industries– In 1923 the government accepted the recommendations of the first fiscal commission to gave protection to selected Indian industries against foreign competition. Between 1924 and 1939 several major industries were given protection the government prominent among them being iron and steel industry , cotton mills , jute , sugar , paper ,pulp industry , matches etc . Indian industrialists took advantage of the policy of protection extended the government ,developed the protected industries rapidly. They were able to capture the entire Indian market and eliminate foreign competition altogether in important fields.
GREEN CHEMISTRY is a program of developing new chemical products and chemical processes or making improvements in the already existing compounds and processes so as to make them less harmful to human death and environment. Green chemistry uses the database information about the toxic and hazardous properties of certain in order to fully evaluate their positive and negative impact. The non availability of such data in the previous years posed problems to the chemists for evaluating consequences of the chemical substance being synthesis and green chemistry tries to find the solution of these problems.
FATHER Of Green CHEMISTRY:
PAUL.T.ANASTAS (American) the father of green chemistry. They for the first time in 1991 coined the term green chemistry. Recently Paul T. Anastasio the Director of Yale University’s for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering. 15 years ago in 1990 the concept of green chemistry was established at the Environment Protection Agency . It was a response to the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
When we start talking about GREEN CHEMISTRY many of us relate Green chemistry to the branch of science involving plants. However, it is nothing to do with the chemistry of plants. In fact, it relate to the program of alternative synthetic pathways for prevention of environmental pollution. The expression green chemistry was used by scientists in 1902 after the formation of Pollution Prevention Act 1990.
GREEN CHEMISTRY is simply a way of utilizing the existing knowledge and principles of Chemistry and other sciences to reduce the harmful impact on environment due to the compounds.
In the period of 1990’s a variety of ideas and research efforts (such as atom economy and catalysis ) emerged Green Chemistry .
Green chemistry is also known as “clean” and “sustainable” chemistry .
In 1962 a book Silent spring was written by Rachel Carson . It was a scientific book it talked about the devastation that certain chemical had on local ecosystem. The book served as wake up call for thee Public as well as the scientist and inspired the Morgen environmental movement . After this the congress noticed the importance and passed the National Environment Policy Act in 1969. This was The first step taken for the environment.
12 Principles of Green Chemistry
“ It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed”.
“Synthetic method should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in process into the final products”.
Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses
“Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substance that litter or no toxicity to human health and environment”
Designing Safer Chemicals
“Chemical products should be designed to preserve Efficacy of function while reducing toxicity”.
Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
“ The use of auxiliary substance should be made unnecessary where possible and innocuous when used”.
“Reduce derivatives unnecessary derivatives should be avoided whenever possible”.
“Catalytic reagents are superior to chemical reagents”
Use of a catalyst facilities transformation without the catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without incorporated in the final product.
Design for Degradation
“Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products”.
Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention
“ Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substance”.
“Checking the Progress of chemical reaction as it happens”.
Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention
“Substance and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to low potential for chemical accidents, including releases explosions, and fires”.
Design for Energy Efficiency
“Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic method should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure”.
Use of Renewable Feed stocks
“ A raw material or feed stock are often made from agricultural products are the waste of the other processes depleting feed stock are made from fossil fuels or are mined.
APPLICATION OF GREEN CHEMISTRY (Tulsa):
Green Chemistry In industry
Development of dense-phase carbon dioxide.
Dense-phase Carbon dioxide has been characteristics. This super critical Carbon dioxide is wonderful material which has the ability to clean everything from the plutonium pits to semiconductor wafer as well as clothes. It can also be used as recyclable solvent and finds number of applications in food industry. Future possible uses of the Carbon dioxide include making cement stronger and also in reducing pollution emission from coal plants.
Development of fuel cells for cellular phones which can last full life time of thee phones. These cells are based on methanol-oxygen fuels.
Development of new method for synthesizing ibuprofen in 99 Percent yield, avoiding the use of large quantities of solvents and waste associated with traditional methods.
Development of a safer marine compound sea-nine that degrades more rapidly than organised which persist in Marin environment and cause pollution problems.
Development of a method for catalytic hydrogenation of diethanolamine. The new Friendly herbicide in a less dangerous way. This technology represents a major break through because it avoids the use of cyanide and formaldehyde.
GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Daily LIFE:
Dry Cleaning of clothes
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning clothes. The compound contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen. Now a days, Carbon dioxide along with suitable detergent is used for dry cleaning in place of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Replacement of hydrogenated solvent Carbon dioxide will result in less harm of ground water.
Bleaching of paper and clothes
Chlorine gas was used earlier for bleaching of the paper. These days, hydrogen peroxide with some Suitable catalyst is used. Hydrogen peroxide is also used for the purpose of bleaching of clothes in the Laundry processes, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.
GREEN CHEMISTRY IN Agriculture (BRAZILIAN):
Agriculture is the one of the most important things for humans.It plays an important role in the field of agriculture. Green chemistry principle are mostly related to the manufacturing part of the agriculture the pesticide, fertilizers should be non-toxic and should not harm the agriculture by any means And they also not harm humans and environment. There are many ways by which agriculture can be protected by green chemistry like:
Minimise the risk of pesticides
Using suitable fertilizer
Maintain the variety
Energy efficiency in the chemicals industry
Barriers of GREEN CHEMISTRY IN INDIA:
1: Availability of green technologies
2: Scale-up and commercial
3: Connecting green chemistry solution providers to industry
4:Understanding of basics of green principle
5: Green chemistry is costly, complex and not viable for SME?
6: Regulatory hurdles
Future aspects of green chemistry:
As we know green chemistry plays very important role for environment. In India present day also there are places where green chemistry should be applied but due to many reasons . In future
Green chemistry should be used there are many of the reasons
India is the birthplace of numerous cultures and religious. It is home to majestic mountain ranges and pristine lakes and rivers, lush green forests. India is breath taking beautiful painfully, frustrating and delightful, cheerful. Apart from the top 4 places to visit you can imagine.
Majuli–Jorhat ,Assam (Largest Fresh water Island)
Majuli is the largest fresh water mid river dweltalic island in the world in Brahmaputra River Assam. It covered an area of around 880 sq Km.This land was formed due to course changes in river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Majuli flauts a vibrant culture and unparalleled scenic beauty .This island is a relaxed ,shimmering mat of glowing of rice field and water meadows bursting with flows. Its has vast diversity found in Majuli around more than 100 species of birds ,more than 20 reptiles and more than 100 mammals.other attractive place like – kamalabari Satra, Dakinpat Satra, Tangapan
Best time to visit- October to March
How to visit – The closed airport is Jorhat .
Darjeeling ,West Bengal (Queen of The Hills)
Darjeeling located in the state of West Bengal. Darjeeling is a small place an amazing destination for enjoying the pristine natural beauty. Darjeeling known as Queen of The Hills. The greatest attraction in Darjeeling is the view of The Kanchenjunga snow peaks, Buddhist monasteries, historical church, waterfall, tea gardens and its cute toy training in a narrow line which runs along the roadside and beautiful landscape of Darjeeling hills. Darjeeling is the highest tea exporter attracts the many visitor. Darjeeling is a wonderful destination for Trekking and River Rafting,Day Hiking, Mountain Biking .It is hot spot for Eco-tourism in India .
Best to time visit – September to June
How to visit–The nearest air is Bagdogra and the nearest major railway junction is New Jalpaiguri (NJP)
Talasari Beach, Odisha( Back Water Beach)
Talasari beach is a beautiful beach located in the Balasore district ,Odisha .Talasari beach is nestled near the Subarnarekhd river and the sea near the Odisha – Bengal border.The water of the sea at Talasari Beach are not turbulent but calm and peaceful.It famous feature that fascinates tourists in the back water which one need to relax.Red crabs are also a major attraction apart from beautiful red crabs , the beach will certain with Palm free and coconut tress and casuarina make a beautiful sight.The shimming surface the countless Twinkle all around give this calm beach a sole status its own.
Best time to visit – October –December and February.
How to visit – Talasari nearest railway station -Jaleshwar which is 36 km far from Talasari beach. Nearest airport – Nataji Subhash Chandra Bose international airport a distance around 200 Km from the beach.
Pangoon Lake, (Endorheic Lake)
Pangoon Lake ,also known as Pangong Tso is an Endorheic Lake situated at an attitude of about 13,900 feet above sea –level. The sheer beauty of Pangong Tso is the fact that the lake display multiple color from shades of blue, green and even sometimes appearing as reddish. It is an ideal place to visit all over the year round. It is an ideal for nature –lovers and to mesmerizing sight seeing opportunities. This is an important breeding point for several migratory birds such as Brahmini ducks and Bar – headed goose. Attractions places spot Spangmik village and Pangong Lake.
Best time to visit – May to September as during winter, the Pangong Tso lake gets freeze.
How to visit – The journey starts from Leh to Pangong lake is a 5 hours drive through uneven terrains .Use public bus from Leh which drops off visitors at the Spangmik village