INDIAN RAILWAYS AND ECONOMIC CHANGE

 Evolution Of Indian Railways

The origin of Indian railways was primarily done to facilitate the commercial interest of the British. Indian railways, the largest rail network in Asia and the world’s second largest under one management are also credited with having a multi gauge and multi traction system. The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. Indian Railways is known to be the largest railway network in Asia.

History of Indian railway:

The introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter.

The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec’ 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Rorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr’ 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 km (21 miles).On the occasion of India’s Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan.  The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. In 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.

 Development of Indian Railways — Three Phases

 Initial Phase(1853-1880) 

The year 1853 was of great importance in the history of India. On 16 April 1853 the first passenger train was introduced between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 34 kilometers formally heralding the birth of railways in India. Robert Mint Land Breton was responsible for the expansion of railways. By 1880 the network had route mileage of about 14500 kilometers mostly radiating from major ports like Bombay and Calcutta.

Second Phase(1880-1915) 

The second phase saw the introduction of some competition among the major lines in north India i.e. Delhi and Bombay, Punjab and Karachi. With the completion of these lines as well as the main lines serving Calcutta there was a struggle to gain control of shipments for the export trade because Karachi and Bombay had very poor facilities. Calcutta was much farther from Europe but it was able to compete because it held a monopoly on coal and could force up its price and consequently the costs of operation of other lines.All India average prices of charges for freight declined to 50% between 1881 and 1916 due to competition between the northern lines. This was further declined to 84% between 1881 and 1919

Third Phase(1916-1947)

In this period government acted to prevent the further falling of rates by establishing a central clearing house to foster cooperation and reduce competition, key lines were permitted and encouraged to form mergers. In 1886 there was amalgamation of Delhi railways with Punjab, the Indus valley and the Sind Sagar railways.

The expansion of branch lines which the government of India promoted also reduced competition. By 1916, through mergers growth of branch lines and agreement between the firms they began to stabilize.Company practiced price discrimination in order to maximize profit. Block rates were instituted which consisted of premiums charged to shippers who started their goods on one line and later had them transferred to another. This encouraged the use of a single line. Companies charged lower rates to and from ports than for comparable inland distances. These all things had critical effects on the economy.

 Indian Railways and Its Effect on Indian Economy

Railways were the most important infrastructure development in India between 1850 & 1947. They inter-connected all dimensions of Indian society. In terms of the economy, railways played a major role in integrating markets and increasing trade. Domestic -international economic trends shaped the pace of development of railway. Indian railways not only contributed towards economic development of Indian economy but brought about price stability and relief from famine damages among many Indian States. Another major economic change that was largely debated by economists with the introduction of Indian railways was the concept of ‘social-saving’. 

Contributing to Modern Market Economy

Prior to the introduction of railways transportation except in the Indus and Ganges valleys and in the coastal regions was costly undependable and difficult.  It provided rapid, reliable and cost-effective bulk transportation to the energy sector, to move coal from the coal fields to power plants and petroleum products from refineries to consumption centers. It linked places, enabling large-scale, rapid and low-cost movement of people across the length and breadth of the country. In the process, the Indian Railways became a symbol of national integration and a strategic instrument for enhancing trade and market integration.

 Contributing to Economic development

The Indian Railways contributed to India’s economic development and accounted for about one per cent of the GNP. Not only did it become the backbone of freight needs of the core sector. It also accounted for six per cent of the total employment in the organized sector directly and an additional 2.5 per cent indirectly through its dependent organizations. The Indian Railways, with nearly 63,000 route kilometers fulfilled the country’s transport needs, particularly, in respect of long-distance passenger , goods traffic. Today, freight trains carry nearly 1.2 million tons of originating goods and 7,500 passenger trains carry nearly 12 million passengers .


 

 

5 Most Richest Country In The World

The richest countries in the world measured in terms of GDP( Gross Domestic Product).  GDP is the total markets value of all goods and services produced in a country in year. The richest countries are fully developed and the citizens of that country has standard of living like need of Human rights,medical facilities , education,Proper Drinking water ,Equivalence  atmosphere between political parties. Top 5 richest country in the world -Qatar : Luxembourg:  Singapore: Norway:Kuwait

 

 

  Qatar : Arab nation: GDP  per capita  ($129,076,88)

Qatar  Officially  the state of Qatar is a sovereign country located in the South – west Asia..Capital of Qatar is a Doha . In Qatar Qatari Riyal use as a currency. State of Qatar is a high income economy and has per capita  income in the world .The worlds 3 largest oil and natural gas  reverses accounts for 70%of its government revenue , 60%of its GDP ,85% of its export earning .It  has a fame of having standard of living with lowest tax in the world for its citizens . The country has vast land making it an attraction for investment. Income resources –Crude oil production and refining, Ammonia fertilizers ,steel plants,Bars , commercial ship repair .Qatar,s proved reserves of natural gas.GDP- 13% .Qatar is the richest country in the world and home to the 2022 FIFA  CUP,the first Arab nation to ever hold this role.

 

 

Luxembourg; Europe Country  GDP per  Capita  ($100,991)

Luxembourg is a land locked country in Western Europe .Officially called THE Grand  Douchy  Of L Luxembourg .Capital of   Luxembourg is  Luxembourg City.Euro is main currency of Luxembourg. Luxembourg with just half a million population rank number second  in list of richest country has per capita is ($100,991) which is 9 times of the world average . The nation  is the 2 largest investment fund centre ,high-income market with low inflation and high innovation .Luxembourg known as “ Green heart of Europe ”. Financial sector ,Dynamic industrial, steel , Banking the backbone of this strong economy.Banking in L Luxembourg is a largest of its with an asset of base over $1.24 trillenalone. Income resource – banking ,Iron steel  Telecommunications industry ,Agricultural.28 %of GDP  remunerated for the decline in steel.Average GDP IS 0.9%.Due to attractive corporate tax laws ideal place for headquarters of many international companies.

 

 

Singapore: Asian Country GDP  per capita ($85,00

Singapore is a modern city-state located in South East Asia.Officially known as The Republic of Singapore.The capital city of Singapore is the city of Singapore city.Singapore known for as the Lion city, The Red  Dot ,The Garden city .Currency of Singapore is Singapore Dollar.Singapore ,one of the cleanest cities in the world with best air port in the world.Tourism is the main source of revenue for this country its boost its GDP.Singapore one of the highest business earing Tycoons countries in the world .The country relevant to invest  as it has attractive investment climate ,stable political that makes per capita income 3 highest country in world. Income resource – Biotechnolgy ,Banking ,Exports Electronics ,Energy.Singapore is  also shipping and transportation hub for Asia.Tourism spot like  Woodlands ,Tengeh Reservoir as numerous  visit all over world.It is a second largest busiest port in the world .of It is a small country with 5.5 Million  population a huge percentage Buddhism followed.

 

 

Norway: Europe country GDP per capita ($99,500)

Norway is a sovereign country located in North  of Europe .officially is known as The  Kindom of Norway. Capital of Norway is Oslo.Currency of Norway is known as Norwagian Krone.Commonly known as Land of rising of sun .Norway has been in the list of richest country because of its well-developed economical industry .Norway  4 richest country in the world ,3 biggest exporter of natural gas,7 largest oil exports in the world.It has created  multiple jobs,provide educations and medical facilities to the individuals.  Norway is one of largest and most influential financial markets. Income resources Tourism, exporter of Natural gases, Minerals,Sea food .Today GDP Stands ($95,000) fellow independent monetary policy.

 

 

Kuwait:Asia country GDP per capita  ($73,298)

Kuwait is an Arab country located in the Western region of Asia. Kuwait officially known as The State of Kuwait currency is The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest –valued currency unit  in the world . Capital of Kuwait is Kuwait city. One of the 5 richest country in world( $73,298).It has petroleum –based economy as 6 largest petroleum reveres account for half of GDP .Kuwait  crude oil reserve which ate about 102 billion barress.It gives best job chance to individual of whole world.Income resources – Toursim ,water desalination ,Oil reserves 95% export revenues and government income .In early days little diversity in economics due to positive fiscal situations.It is also ruled by a stable monarchial government which conduct all  the country affairs .

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 Best places to visit in India

India is the birthplace of numerous cultures and religious. It is home to majestic mountain ranges and pristine lakes and rivers, lush green forests. India is breath taking beautiful painfully, frustrating and delightful, cheerful. Apart  from the top 4 places to visit you can imagine.

 

 

Majuli–Jorhat ,Assam (Largest Fresh water  Island)


Majuli is the largest fresh water mid river dweltalic island in the world in Brahmaputra  River  Assam. It covered an area of around 880 sq Km.This land was formed due to course changes in river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Majuli flauts a vibrant culture and  unparalleled scenic beauty .This island is a relaxed ,shimmering mat of glowing of rice field and water meadows bursting with flows.  Its has vast diversity found in Majuli around more than 100 species of birds ,more than 20 reptiles and more than 100 mammals.other attractive place like – kamalabari Satra, Dakinpat Satra, Tangapan

Best time to visit- October to March

 

How to visit – The closed airport is  Jorhat .

 

Darjeeling ,West Bengal (Queen of The Hills)


Darjeeling located in the state of West Bengal. Darjeeling is a small place an amazing destination for enjoying the pristine natural beauty. Darjeeling  known as Queen of The Hills. The greatest attraction in Darjeeling is the view of  The  Kanchenjunga snow peaks, Buddhist monasteries, historical church, waterfall, tea gardens and  its cute toy training in a narrow line which runs along the roadside and beautiful landscape of Darjeeling hills. Darjeeling is the highest tea exporter attracts the many visitor. Darjeeling is a wonderful destination for Trekking and River Rafting,Day Hiking, Mountain Biking .It is hot spot for      Eco-tourism in India .

Best  to time  visit – September to June

How to visit –The nearest air is Bagdogra and the nearest major railway junction is New Jalpaiguri (NJP)

 

Talasari Beach, Odisha( Back Water Beach)


Talasari beach is a beautiful beach located in the Balasore district ,Odisha .Talasari beach is nestled near the Subarnarekhd river and the sea near the Odisha – Bengal border.The water of the sea at Talasari Beach are not turbulent but calm and peaceful.It famous feature  that fascinates tourists in the back water which one need  to relax.Red crabs are also a major attraction apart from beautiful red crabs , the beach will certain with Palm free and coconut tress and casuarina make a beautiful sight.The shimming surface the countless Twinkle all around give this calm beach a sole status its own.

Best time to visit – October –December and February.

How to visit – Talasari nearest railway station -Jaleshwar which is 36 km far from Talasari beach. Nearest airport – Nataji Subhash Chandra Bose international airport a distance around 200 Km from the beach.

 

Pangoon Lake, (Endorheic Lake)


Pangoon Lake ,also known as Pangong Tso is an Endorheic Lake situated at an attitude of about 13,900 feet above sea –level. The sheer beauty of Pangong Tso is the fact that the lake display multiple color from shades of blue, green and even sometimes appearing as reddish. It is an ideal place to visit all over the year round. It is an ideal for nature –lovers and to mesmerizing sight seeing opportunities. This is an important breeding point for several  migratory birds such as  Brahmini ducks and Bar – headed goose. Attractions places spot  Spangmik village  and Pangong Lake.

Best time to visit – May to September as during winter, the Pangong Tso lake gets freeze.

How to visit – The journey starts from Leh to Pangong lake is a 5 hours drive through uneven terrains .Use public bus from Leh which drops  off visitors at the Spangmik village